Students desiring to apply to the chemistry graduate program should first examine the chemistry department's web page for basic requirements and deadlines and then contact the Chemistry department graduate coordinator or department Chair for further information if needed. International students should also contact the Office of Global Education for specific application requirements for international applicants.
The study is the latest in an ongoing series examining the process of photosynthesis and the different variables that determine its efficiency, conducted by Associate Professor of Chemistry Jianshu Cao and his postdocs and colleagues. The new work, which looks at artificial photosynthetic systems based on self-assembling molecules designed by researchers at of the University of California, Berkeley, follows a paper they published in October in the New Journal of Physics that examined the factors that determine the efficiency of natural photosynthesis.
Photosynthesis - definition of photosynthesis by The …
RO or DI System?
As for what is is better to use, RO or DI, the short answer is if an optimum Reverse Osmosis Filter/Unit is used that utilizes quality TFC (thin film composite) membranes such as the premium Pentair medical grade membrane and activated catalytic carbon block filters, along with a build that properly utilizes the membrane without "flow-by", then the RO unit is more than adequate!
Unfortunately many persons read the "cut and past" hype in many forums, then fall for the cheap price of many Amazon/eBay combined RO/DI units that often cost less than a good quality 3 stage RO unit only.
However when common sense logic is applied, if you are using an RO unit such as the AAP/TMC that applies the features already noted, you will get basically 0 nitrates, 0 phosphates, and 0 chlorine/chloramines and NOT get the concentrated ammonia or other molecules due to high rejection rates and inefficient membranes that then result in your DI resin chamber working over time to removes these! The result is the need to replace these DI resins every 50 gallons of produced water or even less leading to operation cost that far exceed any real or imagined benefit of purchasing these lower cost combined RO/DI filters!!
About all the DI (which means De-ionized) really does for an aquarium keeper over a well designed/quality RO unit is produce a neutral pH water. For marine reef tanks this is unnecessary based on my extensive use and comparison over the years. For a softwater Amazon biotope aquarium, since the KH buffers are stripped by the RO unit, the simple addition of an acid buffer or the natural nitrification bio processes will reduce this pH.