While input is of vital importance, Krashen's assertion that input matters in second-language acquisition has been contradicted by more recent research. For example, students enrolled in French- programs in Canada still produced non-native-like grammar when they spoke, even though they had years of meaning-focused lessons and their listening skills were statistically native-level. Output appears to play an important role, and among other things, can help provide learners with feedback, make them concentrate on the form of what they are saying, and help them to automatize their language knowledge. These processes have been codified in the theory of .
The Monitor Model
The Variable Competence Model
The Universal Hypothesis
A Neurofunctional Theory
the learner was subject to a high degree of social distance and failed to progress very far in learning English.
Start studying ASL2510: Chapters 1-3
Inductive Approach to teaching a Second Language Sources: Myself; Brown, (2001) TBP; Rutherford (1987) Which is better? Brown, 2001:365, Suggests that teaching (general) grammar rules explicitly is unnecessary and that a more inductive approach to Second Language Grammar Acquisition is better. But, he acknowledges that there may be times when a deductive approach might complement an inductive approach, such as when students need correcting. I personally think that a deductive approach is completely unnecessary, BUT, at the same time, I like to use a deductive approach COMBINED with an inductive approach in my personal second language studies, as I think they complement each other. The Disadvantage of a Purely Inductive Approach: The disadvantage of a purely inductive approach is that student often make incorrect hypotheses about the language based upon the general samples given. They go through a hypothesis-testing period and this takes time. While I am not critiquing it's effectiveness, I feel it lacks efficiency. Even native-speaking children have to go through the hypothesis-testing period, and it takes them years to learn their own language. However, with young children, whose cognitive development is not yet mature, it is worthless to use a deductive approach. And yet, with adults, it is possible, and may save huge amounts of time (i.e., increase efficiency). The Disadvantage of a Purely Deductive Approach: The disadvantages of a purely deductive approach (specifically regarding ESL/EFL) are: 1. There are too many rules, and the rule system in English is very convoluted at times. Take the subset of determiners, called "articles" (a, an, the) for example. The rules for using these are so extremely convoluted. 2. There are too many exceptions to the rules. 3. USAGE is so extremely important in English. It would take decades to explain are the proper usages of English...
an elaborated version of Schumann's model--the Nativization ..
In what follows, first a Creole panorama of Central America will be sketched, placing the speakers of these languages within a socio-historical framework and briefly defining the concepts of pidgins and creoles. Then, in order to analyze the relationship between language and identity for Afro-Costa Ricans, the outcome of their linguistic contact and conflict situation will be discussed, taking into account the subordinate linguistic position of this group. Finally, the paper focuses on one particular issue: the survival of Limonese Creole in Costa Rica so far. It illustrates the possibilities of endangerment or maintenance of a code in the light of the sociolinguistic reality its speakers are living.
LINGUIST List 19.958: Language Contact: Schneider (2007)
refers to any language learned in addition to a person's ; although the concept is named -language acquisition, it can also incorporate the learning of third, fourth, or subsequent languages. Second-language acquisition refers to what learners do; it does not refer to practices in , although teaching can affect acquisition. The term was originally used to emphasize the non-conscious nature of the learning process, but in recent years and have become largely synonymous.
modifying and expanding certain elements of the core hypothesis ..
Abstract: The Mecca Cola drink combines in its brand name two contrasting iconic images: one signifies 'authenticity', whereas the other signifies a 'commodity'. The conspicuous juxtaposition of 'Mecca' and 'Cola' and their hyphenization evokes the question: what is becoming of 'authenticity' in a thoroughly commodified world society? This article proposes that a distinction ought to be drawn between the effects of commodification on two distinct levels: the structural and symbolic. Whereas commodification homogenizes structurally, it heterogenizes symbolically. This article maintains that while symbolically Mecca Cola is antagonistic to Coca-Cola, structurally it is a case of an appropriation of the former by the latter. Mecca Cola thus attests to a structural 'Cola-ization' accompanied by a symbolic 'Mecca-ization' of current world cultures.