Concepts and Theories of Human Development.

Computational intelligence is the study of the design of intelligent agents. An agent is something that acts in an environment – it does something. The central scientific goal of computational intelligence is to understand the principles that make intelligent behavior possible, in natural or artificial systems. The main hypothesis is that reasoning is computation. The central engineering goal is to specify methods for the design of useful, intelligent artifacts (p. 1).

The zone of proximal development: Implications for individual differences and learning.
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A large number of dichotomous classifications distinguish between well-ordered processes on the one hand and a confusion of cognitive activity on the other (Neisser, 1967; Estes, 1986). These two dimensions are reflected by the , and the of the proposed problem solving model. On a general or rule level, specific procedures are organised and structured as rules whereas on a subconscious level activity is of a rather unstructured nature. Researchers who have implicitly or explicitly referred to processing on a general or rule level include Cronen and Mikevc (1972); Evans (1982); Geman (1981); Henle, 1962; Rumelhart and Ortony (1977); and Sternberg (1986). Those who have implied or mentioned processing on a subconscious level include Anderson (1985); Ellis, Meador and Bodfish (1985); Evans (1982); Gitomer and Pellegrino (1985); Guilford (1967); Sternberg (1981; 1983; 1986); and Vygotsky (1978).


Teachers should provide short instruction and concrete examples and offer time for practice.
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Diamond, A. (July 9, 2012). Leveraging what we’ve learned from research to help every child succeed: What executive functions are, and strategies and activities to aid their development. Invited talk. Board on Children, Youth, & Families. National Academies of Sciences Planning Meeting. Washington, DC.

There are many different theories of intelligence

Finally, the SIH provided philosophers with material to theorize about the evolution of the human mind. In some respects, agrees with and Humphrey that the unique aspects of our Homo sapiens minds did not evolve to deal with problems in the physical world. Indeed, argues that models of human cognitive evolution which rely on keeping track of changes in the external environment alone cannot explain these unique aspects, stressing that many animals face these same challenges. states that both the ‘ecological intelligence’ hypothesis and the SIH are examples of niche construction, in which the ‘world’ is manipulated in some way. The way that early humans foraged had a profound effect on human sociality, but also led to the evolution of technology and our subsequent unique intellectual capabilities.

Cooperation and human cognition: the Vygotskian ..

Vygotsky saw, as a key factor in the development of intelligence, the individual’s internalisation of social interactions. Because Vygotsky includes both developmental and contextual considerations in his approach, his work is regarded as useful and promising for the study of the nature and development of intellectual functioning.