Further studies have been carried out with toluene and carbon tetrachloride (Tatrai et al., 1979), ethanol (Morvai & Ungváry, 1979; Sato et al., 1981; Waldron et al., 1983), acetylsalicylic acid (Ungváry, 1984), and a mixture of paraffins, naphthenes, and aromatic compounds (Carpenter et al., 1944, 1976a,b; Carpenter & Smyth, 1946; Wolf et al., 1956; Taylor & Harris, 1970).
on the use of benzoic acids and benzoates in foods, and the folks at Panera could learn a lot from it. Although, it has to be noted, the ones who came up with their benzoate ads could apparently learn a lot from most anything, starting with children’s board books and working up from there. The review points out that benzoic acid is a widely used preservative, but its salts are preferred due to their greater solubility (just as in that old experiment above). It’s mostly used for acidic foods, since it seems to have its greatest antimicrobial effect at pH levels from 2.5 to 4.5 – that is, when the equilibrium is largely towards the benzoic acid side. Put in nonchemical terms, for anyone from Panera who might stumble across this, sodium benzoate turns into benzoic acid when it’s used as a preservative. It’s just a matter of pH, as any high school or freshman chemistry student should be able to explain.
Toluene decreased the toxic effect of benzene on bone marrow.
A relatively wide range of hippuric acid excretion levels has been reported for groups of workers exposed to toluene during different operations (Table 6).
The synthesis of toluene by the ..
Penicillamine, mw 149 ish, was the smallest hapten I ever encountered shown unequivocally to lead to allergic reactions. It would appear that benzoic acid has extended that lower limit, at least by a few amu.
80 mL Toluene (ACS) 40 mL Benzaldehyde (~99%)
Some 60 - 75% of absorbed toluene is metabolized to benzoic acid by the microsomal mixed-function oxidase system, with subsequent conjugation with glycine to form hippuric acid.
In toluene, benzaldehyde was produced with high selectivity, ..
Short-term studies of toxicity have been performed with eight of the substances in this group, but most with butyl -hydoxybenzoate (No. 870), commonly known as butyl paraben, vanillin (No. 889), methyl salicylate (No. 899), ethyl vanillin (No. 893), and piperonal (No. 896). Each of these four substances has been allocated an ADI. The studies with ethyl vanillin were reviewed comprehensively by the Committee at its thirty-fifth and forty-sixth meetings (Annex 1, references and ), and the results of that review are included below so as to present all relevant data related to the safety of structurally related hydroxy- and alkoxy-benzaldehyde derivatives.
Benzene to Benzoic Acid Synthesis - YouTube
Groups of five male and five female weanling Osborne-Mendel rats were given diets containing -methoxybenzaldehyde (No. 878) or piperonal (No. 896) at a concentration providing 50 mg/kg bw per day for 27–28 weeks or 500 mg/kg bw per day for 15 weeks. Ten male and 10 female rats were used as controls. Body weight, food intake, and general condition were noted weekly, and haematological examinations were performed at the end of the study. No effects were seen at either dose. The NOEL was 500 mg/kg bw per day for both -methoxybenzaldehyde and piperonal (Hagan et al., 1967).
Aromatic Compounds - Phenol, Toluene, Anisole, Benzoic Acid ..
Esters of hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives can be expected to be hydrolysed to the corresponding benzyl alcohol and benzoic acid derivatives, while the acetals are hydrolysed to the parent benzaldehyde derivative. Thus formed, the alcohols and aldehydes are oxidized mainly to benzoic acid derivatives, which are either excreted unchanged or form sulfate, glycine, or glucuronic acid conjugates. Some glucuronic acid conjugates may pass into the bile and enter the enterohepatic circulation, where they are hydrolysed or subjected to the reduction reactions of gut bacteria. Small amounts of hydroxy- and alkoxybenzoic acid derivatives have been reported to undergo reductive decarboxylation in the gut. Other minor metabolic detoxication pathways include -demethylation and ring hydroxylation.