The principled use of the REST style in the Web, with its clear notion of components, connectors, and representations, relates closely to the C2 architectural style . The C2 style supports the development of distributed, dynamic applications by focusing on structured use of connectors to obtain substrate independence. C2 applications rely on asynchronous notification of state changes and request messages. As with other event-based schemes, C2 is nominally push-based, though a C2 architecture could operate in REST's pull style by only emitting a notification upon receipt of a request. However, the C2 style lacks the intermediary-friendly constraints of REST, such as the generic resource interface, guaranteed stateless interactions, and intrinsic support for caching.
More precisely, a resource R is a temporally varying membership function M(t), which for time t maps to a set of entities, or values, which are equivalent. The values in the set may be resource representations and/or resource identifiers. A resource can map to the empty set, which allows references to be made to a concept before any realization of that concept exists -- a notion that was foreign to most hypertext systems prior to the Web . Some resources are static in the sense that, when examined at any time after their creation, they always correspond to the same value set. Others have a high degree of variance in their value over time. The only thing that is required to be static for a resource is the semantics of the mapping, since the semantics is what distinguishes one resource from another.
So references to the web are usually less satisfactory.
The Representational State Transfer (REST) style is an abstraction of the architectural elements within a distributed hypermedia system. REST ignores the details of component implementation and protocol syntax in order to focus on the roles of components, the constraints upon their interaction with other components, and their interpretation of significant data elements. It encompasses the fundamental constraints upon components, connectors, and data that define the basis of the Web architecture, and thus the essence of its behavior as a network-based application.
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The first constraints added to our hybrid style are those of the client-server architectural style (), described in . Separation of concerns is the principle behind the client-server constraints. By separating the user interface concerns from the data storage concerns, we improve the portability of the user interface across multiple platforms and improve scalability by simplifying the server components. Perhaps most significant to the Web, however, is that the separation allows the components to evolve independently, thus supporting the Internet-scale requirement of multiple organizational domains.
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The design rationale behind the Web architecture can be described by an architectural style consisting of the set of constraints applied to elements within the architecture. By examining the impact of each constraint as it is added to the evolving style, we can identify the properties induced by the Web's constraints. Additional constraints can then be applied to form a new architectural style that better reflects the desired properties of a modern Web architecture. This section provides a general overview of REST by walking through the process of deriving it as an architectural style. Later sections will describe in more detail the specific constraints that compose the REST style.
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10. With the ready availability of photocopy machines you should beable to bypass many of the hardships that previous dissertation researchershad to deal with in developing their literature review. When you read somethingthat is important to your study, photocopy the relevant articleor section. Keep your photocopies organized according to categories andsections. And, most importantly, photocopy the bibliographic citation sothat you can easily reference the material in your bibliography. Then, whenyou decide to sit down and actually write the literature review, bring out yourphotocopied sections, put them into logical and sequential order, and thenbegin your writing.