blue-pigment actinorhodin production) Streptomyces coelicolor
Plant and human pathogen Carbon cycle Source of antibiotics Novel enzymes Objectives of the study Bently et al., 2002 Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) Whole Genome Actinomycete model organism Linear chromosome 8,667,507bp
(largest in bacteria) 7,825 genes
(larger than S.
Due to emerging drug resistant bacterial strains, nowadays many bacterial diseases do not resposnd to prescribed antibiotic treatments options and thus infectious diseases caused by various bacterial pathogens are flaring up and becoming uncontrollable (). The most common antibiotic-resistant organisms include , , , , sp.,and others. Of these, few pathogens have become Multidrug Resistant (MDR) in nature viz., Methicillin-Resistant (MRSA), Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE) among Gram positive bacteria; Carbapenemase (KPC), Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBLs) producing Gram-negative bacteria; serovar Typhimurium DT 104 (ACSSuT-phenotype); Imipenem-resistant or MDR organisms ,,,sp.; Clindamycin-resistant , Streptomycin-resistant ; resistant to multiple fluoroquinolone; revealing resistance to isoniazid, rifampin (; ; ). MDR, Extremely drug-resistant (XDR) strains and/or Totally Drug Resistant (TDR) strains include , tuberculosis bacterium and . Thus many antibiotics like penicillin, methicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, fluoroquinolone, kanamycin, chloramphenicol, cefatoxime, isoniazid, rifampin etc., are not having much values in treating bacterial diseases effectively as they were of high use in earlier times (). Some specific drugs/antibiotics viz., DDT, diclofenac, paracetamol, aspirin, analgin, furazolidone, piperazine, nitrofurazone, penicillin as skin or eye ointments, tetracycline as liquid oral preparation of drug and many other drug combinations have been banned in many countries. It is because of their side effects, residual toxicity and related concerns. Also, the use of penicillin, sulphonamides and many other drugs has raised public health and industrial issues. The resistant bacteria in animals can be transmitted to humans via consumption of improper/undercooked contaminated meat, milk or eggs, close or direct contact with animals or through the environment and thus poses significant concerns and public health issues. Altogether, the ever emerging issue of has posed an alarming public health threat worldwide and increased the global worries, for which purpose solutions are being thought of including of finding alternative and complemenray therapeutic modalities (; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ).
The Pharmaceutical Century - 1940s
There is a necessity to establish polyphasic identification method using both genotypic and phenotypic characteristics in laying the taxonomic relationships of Streptomyces species.
Anthracycline Chemotherapy Agents
Actinomycetes are an important group of microorganisms, not only as degraders of organic materials in the natural environment, but also as producers of many useful compounds of commercial interest (; ; ). Actinomycetes are highly attractive as cell factories or bioreactors for applications in industrial, agricultural, environmental and pharmaceutical fields. In actinomycetes, the genera Streptomyces, Rhodococcus, Corynebacterium and Mycobacterim have received an increasing amount of attention, particularly in the industrial fields. They exhibit potential advantages in the synthesis of secondary metabolites of industrial and medical importance () and are active in the production of s by fermentation and in bioconversion processes. Actinomycetes are important for the synthesis of enzymes, such as peptidases, chitinase, amylases, cellulases, proteases, xylanases, pectinase, ligninases, sugar isomerases, hemicellulase and keratinase (). They are also produced various types of antibiotics ().
The Pharmaceutical Century - 1940s - UAH
Phylogenetic analysis, sugar hydrolase Phylogenetic analysis 5 pmol 10 pmol Results and Discussion Genomic DNA extraction CTAB Method Primer development and optimization Phylogenetic analysis Screening and DNA sequencing MEGA5 Neighbour-joining
Maximum-Likelihood DNA sequence
Deduced amino acid sequence 16S rRNA R5 minus medium UV-VIS Spectrophotometer Artemis
PCR cycle Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
Vector NTI Solgent, Korea Alignment of homologous strains, celB Forward primer Reverse primer DNA sequence result Reverse primer Forward primer This study reiterates that intraspecies delineation of Streptomyces strains can be achieved by using protein coding genes alongside with the standard 16S rRNA.