The authors stress that immigration is only one factor in the worsening labor situation of low-skilled African-American men. "The 1980-2000 immigrant influx, therefore, generally 'explains' about 20 to 60 percent of the decline in wages, 25 percent of the decline in employment, and about 10 percent of the rise in incarceration rates among blacks with a high school education or less," they write.
Almost everybody knows that in the past 40 years, the real wages and job prospects for low-skilled men, especially low-skilled minority workers, have fallen. And there is evidence -- although no consensus -- that a rising tide of immigration is partly to blame. Now, a new NBER study suggests that immigration has more far-reaching consequences than merely depressing wages and lowering employment rates of low-skilled African-American males: its effects also appear to push some would-be workers into crime and, later, into prison.
The dystopian, anti-immigration book The Camp of the …
developed "crack index," which combines the effects of crack busts, arrests, emergency hospitalizations, and deaths, and skewing it so that the crack epidemic affected only younger, low-skilled workers, the authors still find that immigration boosted incarceration rates of black, low-skilled workers. In fact, factoring in crack barely changed the results.
05/09/2007 · Hillary D
The White Paper on Immigration was a policy document commissioned by the Liberal government of Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson to review immigration legislation and make recommendations on its restructuring. A major review of policy was deemed necessary in response to the changing Canadian economy. Skilled workers were increasingly in demand as manufacturing, managerial, professional and technical occupations grew in importance. Despite this economic shift, the immigration rate of unskilled and undereducated sponsored immigrants remained high, contributing to growing unemployment.
International Students & Immigration Education Program - CBIE
The White Paper on Immigration was tabled in Parliament in 1966 by Jean Marchand, the minister in charge of the newly formed Department of Manpower and Immigration. The report called for a greater alignment of immigration policy and long-term economic interests. Due to the rapid technological changes in the economy, it argued that Canada should focus on recruiting qualified immigrants and tighten the controls on the sponsorship system to avoid an influx of unskilled labourers.
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If you already have UK immigration permission in another capacity, eg a dependent visa, work visa or ancestry visa, you may be able to study on that visa without needing to apply under Tier 4.
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Why would a boost in immigration effectively put more men, especially black men, behind bars? The authors put forward a straightforward theory: immigration causes wages and employment to fall for black workers. When this happens, some of those workers -- especially those with the lowest skills -- turn to crime to increase their income. Certainly, the census data reveal a statistical link: as immigration began to increase, beginning in the 1980s, so did the institutionalization of low-skilled black men. While the Census Bureau defines institutions to include mental hospitals, the 1980 census -- and Justice Department data -- suggests that the majority of young men who were institutionalized were, in fact, in prison or in jail.