Unfortunately, you forgot to mention all the family of Weightless Neural Systems.
Have a look at them, they are really interesting and powerful.
Liquid state machines (LSM) are similar soups, looking a lot like ESNs. The real difference is that LSMs are a type of spiking neural networks: sigmoid activations are replaced with threshold functions and each neuron is also an accumulating memory cell. So when updating a neuron, the value is not set to the sum of the neighbours, but rather added to itself. Once the threshold is reached, it releases its’ energy to other neurons. This creates a spiking like pattern, where nothing happens for a while until a threshold is suddenly reached.
Artificial Neural Network Thesis Topics
Deep residual networks (DRN) are very deep FFNNs with extra connections passing input from one layer to a later layer (often 2 to 5 layers) as well as the next layer. Instead of trying to find a solution for mapping some input to some output across say 5 layers, the network is enforced to learn to map some input to some output + some input. Basically, it adds an identity to the solution, carrying the older input over and serving it freshly to a later layer. It has been shown that these networks are very effective at learning patterns up to 150 layers deep, much more than the regular 2 to 5 layers one could expect to train. However, it has been proven that these networks are in essence just RNNs without the explicit time based construction and they’re often compared to LSTMs without gates.
Phd Thesis On Neural Network - …
Associative Learning: Associative learning is also known as supervised learning. Target value or desire output form the base of learning. Network aims to match outputs with desired target values at the time of training process.
Phd Thesis Artificial Neural Network
Self Organization Learning: Self organization learning is otherwise known as unsupervised learning method. It doesn’t have any target value. In the process of clustering network similar patterns can be learnt, distributed and classified into groups.
Phd Thesis Artificial Neural Networks
Echo state networks (ESN) are yet another different type of (recurrent) network. This one sets itself apart from others by having random connections between the neurons (i.e. not organised into neat sets of layers), and they are trained differently. Instead of feeding input and back-propagating the error, we feed the input, forward it and update the neurons for a while, and observe the output over time. The input and the output layers have a slightly unconventional role as the input layer is used to prime the network and the output layer acts as an observer of the activation patterns that unfold over time. During training, only the connections between the observer and the (soup of) hidden units are changed.
Phd Thesis On Artificial Neural Networks
Neural Turing machines (NTM) can be understood as an abstraction of LSTMs and an attempt to un-black-box neural networks (and give us some insight in what is going on in there). Instead of coding a memory cell directly into a neuron, the memory is separated. It’s an attempt to combine the efficiency and permanency of regular digital storage and the efficiency and expressive power of neural networks. The idea is to have a content-addressable memory bank and a neural network that can read and write from it. The “Turing” in Neural Turing Machines comes from them being Turing complete: the ability to read and write and change state based on what it reads means it can represent anything a Universal Turing Machine can represent.
A Brief Introduction to Neural Networks [D. Kriesel]
Extreme learning machines (ELM) are basically FFNNs but with random connections. They look very similar to LSMs and ESNs, but they are not recurrent nor spiking. They also do not use backpropagation. Instead, they start with random weights and train the weights in a single step according to the least-squares fit (lowest error across all functions). This results in a much less expressive network but it’s also much faster than backpropagation.