All steps of protein synthesis easily explained, from RNA to ..

from yeast The structural complexity of tRNA is with 71 out of 76 bases participating in stacking interaction (of which 42 in double helical stem structures).

RNA polymerase reads the coding strand of the DNA and synthesises RNA that is

The entire protein would actually require a much longer sequence of DNA bases.
Whenever a protein needs to be made, the correct DNA sequence for that protein is copied to a molecule called (mRNA).

A Science Odyssey: You Try It: DNA Workshop

these genetic messages is to copy part of the nucleotide sequence from DNA into RNA, ..

Humans have roughly 22,000 genes.
The first step in decoding these genetic messages is to copy part of the nucleotide sequence from DNA into RNA, or ribonucleic acid.
These RNA molecules contain coded information for making proteins
like DNA,
consists of a long chain of nucleotides,
and is made up of the
same things as DNA
(a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base)

for one small difference:
the sugar group in RNA is ribose.
RNA also differs from DNA
in the fact that it is
single stranded, and has the base uracil instead of thymine
(therefore, in RNA
A bonds with U
RNA is like a
disposable copy
of a
segment of DNA
In many cases, an
RNA molecule is a working copy of a single gene.
The ability to
copy a single DNA sequence into RNA
makes it possible for a
single gene to produce hundreds or even thousands of RNA molecules
There are
three main types
of RNA:
1.) messenger RNA (mRNA)
2.) ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
3.) transfer RNA (tRNA)
The job of
messenger RNA (mRNA)
is to
carry copies of instructions
for the
assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA
to the rest of the cell
The job of
transfer RNA (tRNA)
is to
transfer, or move, amino acids to ribosomes
protein synthesis
The job of
ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
is to
make up the major part of ribosomes.

DNA / RNA Protein Synthesis Online Quiz - zeroBio

Nucleic acids are composed of subunits called nucleotides. Each nucleotide is composed of a sugar molecule containing five carbon atoms, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. For DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) the sugar is deoxyribose and the nitrogenous bases are Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, and Thymine. For RNA (ribonucleic acid) the sugar is ribose and the nitrogenous bases are Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, and Uracil.

For each question, choose the answer from the drop-down menu box

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a mature, copy of a gene that describes the exact sequence in which amino acids should be bonded together to form a protein. Transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules are responsible for picking up particular amino acids and transferring them to the ribosomes for assembly into polypeptides. Each tRNA molecule contains a triplet nucleotide sequence that can base-pair with a codon on the mRNA. This triplet nucleotide sequence on tRNA that is complementary to the codon of mRNA is called an anticodon. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is used in the manufacture of ribosomes where mRNA and tRNA come together in the synthesis of proteins.

Transcription, Translation and Replication from the ..

The purpose of this exercise is to become familiar with the structure of nucleic acids, DNA, RNA and to reinforce the role of DNA and RNA in the process of protein synthesis.