Management of asthma and rhinosinusitis in an ASA-hypersensitive patient is similar to treatment of other forms of asthma and rhinosinusitis. However, there are several important additional treatment modalities to be considered when aspirin-hypersensitivity is diagnosed (20).
No scientific discovery is solely the work of a single person, as acknowledged in Isaac Newton’s famous aphorism: “If I have seen further, it is by standing on ye shoulders of giants.” So it was with Vane. He was brought to aspirin in 1968 by Henry Collier, a pharmacologist who had worked on it for a decade. Collier had discovered that although both morphine and aspirin kill pain, they act by different principles. Morphine acts on the brain. Aspirin acts locally at the sites of injury. What local biochemical mechanisms underlie aspirin’s actions? Collier’s research was stymied, partly because his tools and techniques were rather blunt.
Synthesis of Aspirin - A-Level Science - Marked by …
The medicinal effects of the plants were discovered by people through life experiences. An Egyptian papyrus prescribed willow leaves for fever and swelling. The Greek Hippocrates, who was honored as the father of medicine, recommended willow bark for pain and fever. Medieval medical scripts contained many references to the plant.
All mammalian cells except erythrocytes synthesize eicosanoids
Precursor: Salicylic Acid
Aspirin takes away pain by inhibiting or preventing the growth of inflammation causing cells
Circa 1800: Salicylic Acid- discovered from bark of Willow tree
1853: primitive form of Aspirin
1897: synthesized by Felix Hoffman under Bayer
1899: Bayer mass produces
How to manufacture Aspirin:
-weighing of ingredients (Corn starch, water & lubricant -> binding agent and fillers, acetylsalicylic acid )
-mixing - mixes ingredients, takes out air w/ glen mixer -> "Slugs"
-drying-forcing mixture by hand on mesh or use of fitzpatrick mill
-testing and packaging
*lubricants-hydrogenated vegetable oil, stearic acid, talc, or aluminum stearate
When you use,
Ibuprofen - same potency but does not upset stomach as much
Naproxen - same potency, stays in the body 6 times longer.
Synthesis of Aspirin- Why Sulphuric Acid? | Yahoo …
Johnson and colleagues (2002) () carried out a cohort study in the USin order to evaluate the effect of aspirin (and/or drugs withaspirin in their formulation), NSAIDs, or drugs used in thetreatment of arthritis, in a population of 27,616 postmenopausalwomen. Less than 4% of the women were diagnosed with BC (RR=0.80)after 6 years of monitoring. In the aspirin group, themultivariate-adjusted RR for BC was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.58–0.87),considering those women that consumed aspirin at least 6 times aweek and independent of the BC stage. In comparison, for the restof the NSAIDs under the same conditions, the adjusted RR value was1.01 (95% CI, 0.83–1.25). One year afterwards, the Women HealthInitiative (WHI) completed a study including 80,741 postmenopausalwomen (50–79 years of age) during 10 years (). During this period, less than 2% ofthe participants were diagnosed with BC. Their results showed thatthe regular use of NSAIDs (for more than 5 years but less than 10years), taking two or more tablets per week (doses over 100 mg, nofurther specification was given) reduced the incidence of BC by 21%(RR=0.79; 95% CI, 0.60–1.04). An increment of 7 percentage unitswas found in those women that had consumed NSAIDs for over 10 years(RR=0.72; 95% CI, 0.56–0.91). Aspirin reduced by 21% the risk of BCat doses higher than 100 mg/day; in comparison, ibuprofen was moreeffective diminishing the risk by 49%. Importantly, they found thatNSAIDs had a major impact in women with characteristics such ashigh mass index, lack of exercise, late pregnancy, family historyof BC and/or hormonal therapy. The authors did not mention whetherthe cancer cases were diagnosed or whether they wereinvasive.