What Is Protein Synthesis - Protein Synthesis

PURExpress® is a reconstituted protein synthesis system based on the PUREsystem™ (Shimizu et al., 2001) where all necessary components needed for in vitro transcription and translation are purified from E. coli.

The main stages of protein synthesis are transcription and translation.

Milon P, Tischenko E, Tomsic J et al. (2006) The nucleotide‐binding site of bacterial translation initiation factor 2 (IF2) as a metabolic sensor. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103: 13962–13967.

Protein Synthesis in the Cellular Factory - YouTube

The nucleolus and ribosomes form part of the proteinsynthesizing machinery of the cell

Similar to TnaC described above, the peptide SecM exists solely to stallthe ribosome synthesizing it. But unlike TnaC, which also requires thepresence of high levels of trytophan, SecM has an intrinsic stallingcapability. Stalling of the ribosome synthesizing SecM provides time fora downstream RNA helix on the same mRNA strand to unwind. Unwinding ofthis helix then allows for a new ribosome to bind and synthesize anew protein, SecA, a bacterial ATP-driven translocase that aids the passage ofnascent proteins across membranes in conjunction with SecY (see also ). When sufficient levels of SecA have been reached,SecA interacts with the SecM-stalled ribosome to pull on SecM, freeingit and allowing translation to resume (illustrated schematically inFig. 13). SecM, which serves no otherpurpose than to stall the ribosome, is released into the cell anddegraded.

Mechanisms of Protein Synthesis by the Ribosome

The translation of genetic information into proteins is essential forlife. At the core of this process lies the ribosome, a quintessentiallarge (2.5-4.5 MDa) molecular machine responsible for translatinggenetic material into functional proteins. In a growing cell, ribosomescomprise up to half of the net dry weight. Because of its fundamental rolein the cell, 50% of all efforts to develop antibiotics target bacterialribosomes, taking advantage of the structural differences between bacterialand human ribosomes.

Elongation cycle of protein synthesis

AAC is a membrane protein that acts like a revolving door - transporting ADP into mitochondria (to be converted to ATP) and ATP out of mitochondria and into the cytoplasm (Wang and Tajkhorshid 2008).

All steps of protein synthesis ..

Laursen BS, Sorensen HP, Mortensen KK and Sperling‐Petersen HU (2005) Initiation of protein synthesis in bacteria. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 69: 101–123.

Protein synthesis (article) | NOVA Labs | Khan Academy

Due to great advances in the structural resolution of the ribosome, animpressive feat given its large size, the system is considered one ofthe hottest focal areas in molecular cell biology today. During theprocess of translation, the ribosome undergoes several conformationalchanges and binds to different factors that catalyze specificreactions. As detailed below, techniques to determine structure of theribosome can only image snapshots of the ribosome, often at medium tolow resolution. Atomic details of the interactions between the factorsand the ribosome, along with a dynamic description of the conformationalchanges of the ribosome itself, are crucial to understanding itsfunction.