(D) L D (D * L) Voltage Current Power ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 135 mm 80 mm .46 mm 1 1 1 900 V 3.3 mA .5 mW 177 mm 115 mm .53 mm 1.4 1.15 1.6 1,130 V 4.5 mA 1.0 mW 255 mm 190 mm .72 mm 2.4 1.57 3.7 1,360 V 6.5 mA 2.0 mW 370 mm 300 mm .80 mm 3.8 1.7 6.4 1,800 V 6.5 mA 5.0 mW 440 mm 365 mm .65 mm 4.6 1.4 6.4 2,150 V 6.5 mA 10 mW 930 mm 855 mm 1.23 mm 11.1 2.7 29.9 4,500 V 8.0 mA 25-35 mW(Bore length was estimated since the cathode-end of the capillary is notvisible without X-raying the tube or by optically determining its positionthrough the mirror!)The general relationships seem to hold though large tubes seem to producehigher output power than predicted possibly constant losses represent asmaller overhead.
The tube is longer than I'd like - about 14 inchesresulting in a mirror spacing of about 16 inches - so it was necessaryto really kill the gain with low reflectance mirrors and/or an apertureto get only 2 or 3 modes oscillating.
Human Knowledge: Foundations and Limits
If this laser were to be really unlucky (i.e., thedistance between mirrors was exactly wrong) the cavity resonance might not fallin a portion of the gain curve with enough gain to even lase at all!
Interactions : a thematic reader (Book, 2012) …
The latest example of this was the way in which the Anglo-American media, in particular, distorted the real meaning of the criminal bombardment of the Iraqi people at the end of 1998.
Interactions : a thematic reader
This is based on the valid hypothesis that reality is not just something external to the way it is conceived. TV watching is a constituent moment of reality since our information about reality consists of conceptions that constitute reality itself.
DISTORTING MIRROR | Hall mirror | Hall mirrors, Hall …
The environmental education of the general public can be called accidental. There are many individuals and organisations who work specifically for the environment. Administrative and commercial organisations, including the mass media, also contribute. However, their leaders may have other motives than mere concern for the environment. All try to educate and persuade the public to change. My next thoughts are based on the evidence of a variety of pamphlets and journals edited by environmentally interested parties, and on many hours of attentive TV watching over the past two years. The latter could be called a personal empirical observation of life in TV commercials, news presentation, and political discussions. Radio and television, the information media for the majority of the population, bring the topic more than once daily, in commercials, documentaries on nature, and sometimes in the news. Therefore the public is aware of the issue. However, the mass media provide little information about what one can actually do for the environment. Radio and TV also illustrate the central importance of feelings: they bring almost all announcements and commercials in a happy and emotive tone, carrying a promise of happiness. The message is that 'you feel good' because you watch our programme and buy our 'goods', 'we provide the pleasure'. Therefore I think that environmentalism can only really become successful if it presents the notion that we like to be green, that being green gives us a good feeling, and that you will enjoy it too.
DISTORTING MIRROR Hall mirror by VIDAME ..
& (1990) researched decision-making in environmental educationon teaching units entitled Meat, and Fuel, for students aged 13 to 14 and 14 to 15. I will elaborate on their research since they presented a valuable approach to two major environmental problems. Unexpectedly their work also throws light on the important question of bias because of researchers' values. The teaching materials investigated contained flow-charts with detailed explanations on individual practices in The Netherlands and their environmental consequences both at home and in overseas countries. In the units, two main evaluative questions were posed: 'Do you consider the situation a serious environmental problem?', and 'Which solution do you consider the best?'. The results of this study deserve attention since the teenagers at this age may well reflect their socialisation, that is, mirror their parents' choices and attitudes. Also, as the researchers remark, meat eating and the motor car have become symbols of our prosperity and it is therefore no simple matter to question these habits. Before the Meat unit was discussed in class, most of the students considered the housing conditions of factory farmed animals to be the only real environmental problem. After the unit was taught, the majority of the students demonstrated a correct understanding of the relationship between meat production and environmental damage. Yet over 60% believed that the consumer is not to blame, and they felt no personal responsibility, although 80% of the Dutch eat some meat every day. In their replies to a post-test question on possible arguments for giving up meat, only 3% of the arguments mentioned were related to environmental problems. Such Third World problems as soil erosion and depletion caused by the production of cattle fodder for Dutch farmers did not seem real. Although the economic position of the Thai farmers who produce the fodder was only touched upon in passing, it was the economic problem the students remembered. In the classroom discussions no solution was acceptable that had financial consequences for the [Dutch] farmer. The unit on Fuel demonstrated that the students associate energy consumption primarily with the effects of acid rain and less with the greenhouse effect. When asked to free-associate with the phrase 'environmental problem', students did not mention 'greenhouse effect' at all. Their first worry was the depletion of the resources, but this was not considered an environmental problem. Asked about possible solutions for air pollution most students believed that air pollution is caused by industry and motor vehicles, and 30% said we could reduce air pollution by getting rid of cars and closing factories. At this point and commented: