Clean Chemical Synthesis in Water

Because of the low value of the equilibrium constant at high temperatures (e.g., = 0.039 at 800 K), there is no way to produce an equilibrium mixture that contains large proportions of ammonia at high temperatures. We can, however, control the temperature and the pressure while using a catalyst to convert a fraction of the N2 and H2 in the reaction mixture to NH3, as is done in the Haber-Bosch process. This process also makes use of the fact that the product—ammonia—is less volatile than the reactants. Because NH3 is a liquid at room temperature at pressures greater than 10 atm, cooling the reaction mixture causes NH3 to condense from the vapor as liquid ammonia, which is easily separated from unreacted N2 and H2. The unreacted gases are recycled until complete conversion of hydrogen and nitrogen to ammonia is eventually achieved. is a simplified layout of a Haber-Bosch process plant.

Reactions What is a chemical reaction

How do trees grow? What about flowers? Vegetables of any kind? All of these plants require photosynthesis, which is a chemical reaction that plants use to grow. Plants that rely on photosynthesis for survival produce grains, sugar, and many other goodies. Without chemical reactions, cookies just wouldn't be the same.


Bartoli indole synthesis - Wikipedia

The products are highly favored at equilibrium, but the rate at which equilibrium is reached is too slow to be useful. You learned in that the reaction rate can often be increased dramatically by increasing the temperature of the reactants. Unfortunately, however, because the reaction is quite exothermic, an increase in temperature will shift the equilibrium to the left, causing more reactants to form and relieving the stress on the system by absorbing the added heat. If we increase the temperature too much, the equilibrium will no longer favor methane formation. (In fact, the equilibrium constant for this reaction is very temperature sensitive, decreasing to only 1.9 × 10−3 at 1000°C.) To increase the reaction rate, we can try to find a catalyst that will operate at lower temperatures where equilibrium favors the formation of products. Higher pressures will also favor the formation of products because 4 mol of gaseous reactant are converted to only 2 mol of gaseous product. Very high pressures should not be needed, however, because the equilibrium constant favors the formation of products. Thus optimal conditions for the reaction include carrying it out at temperatures greater than room temperature (but not too high), adding a catalyst, and using pressures greater than atmospheric pressure.