Synthesis of 17β-Estradiol by Isolated Ovarian Tissues …

1.4.2 Estradiol-related genetic markers of carcinogenicity The A2 allele of CYP17, the cytochrome P450 that catalyses the rate-limiting step in androgen biosynthesis, has been suggested to be a genetic marker for hormone-dependent disease such as polycystic ovarian syndrome, anovulatory infertility, hirsutism, and breast cancer.

Improved synthesis of mestranol and ethinyl estradiol …

The ability of estradiol to induce morphological transformation, gene mutations, chromosomal aberrations, sister chromotid exchange, unscheduled DNA synthesis and other chromosomal changes was assessed in Syrian hamster embryo cells.


Synthesis of New Immunogens for Estrone and Estradiol …

(1998) Prevention of estrogen carcinogenesis in the hamster kidney by ethinyl estradiol: Some unique properties of a synthetic estrogen.

(1990) 2-Hydroxyestradiol enhanced progesterone production by porcine granulosa cells: Dependence on de novo cholesterol synthesis and stimulation of cholesterol side-chain cleavage activity and cytochrome P450scc messenger ribonucleic acid levels.


Steroids Partial Synthesis | Estrogen | Estradiol

Measuring the circulating levels of estradiol is important for assessing the ovarian function and monitoring follicular development for assisted reproduction protocols. Estradiol plays an essential role throughout the human menstrual cycle. Elevated estradiol levels in females may also result from primary or secondary ovarian hyperfunction. Very high estradiol levels are found during the induction of ovulation for assisted reproduction therapy or in pregnancy. Decreased estradiol levels in females may result from either lack of ovarian synthesis (primary ovarian hypofunction and menopause) or a lesion in the hypothalamus-pituitary axis (secondary ovarian hypofunction). Elevated estradiol levels in males may be due to increased aromatization of androgens, resulting in gynecomastia.

04/06/2017 · Abstract

McLean Estradiol-17ß Explanation Biological data Absorption, distribution, and elimination Biotransformation Hydroxylation Conjugation Biochemical parameters Synthesis Mechanism of action Toxicological studies Acute toxicity Short-term studies of toxicity Long-term studies of toxicity and carcinogenicity Genotoxicity Reproductive toxicity Special studies on mechanism of action Observations in humans Therapeutic use Estradiol-related genetic markers of carcinogenicity Progesterone Explanation Biological data Absorption, distribution, and excretion Biotransformation Biochemical parameters Synthesis Mechamism of action Toxicological studies Acute toxicity Short-term studies of toxicity Long-term studies of toxicity and carcinogencity Genotoxicity Reproductive toxicity Observations in humans Testosterone Explanation Biological data Absorption, distribution, and elimination Biotransformation Biochemical parameters Synthesis Mechamism of action Toxicological studies Acute toxicity Short-term studies of toxicity Long-term studies of toxicity and carcinogenicity Genotoxicity Reproductive toxicity Observations in humans Epidemiological studies of women exposed to postmenopausal estrogen therapy and hormonal contraceptives Methods Postmenopausal oestrogen therapy Exposure Human carcinogenicity Breast cancer Endometrial cancer Cervical cancer Ovarian cancer Cancers of the liver and biliary tract Colorectal cancer Cutaneous malignant melanoma Thyroid cancer Summary and conclusions Cardiovascular disease Osteoporosis Overall mortality Hormonal contraceptives Exposure Human carcinogenicity Breast cancer Endometrial cancer Cervical cancer Ovarian cancer Cancers of the liver and biliary tract Colorectal cancer Cutaneous malignant melanoma Thyroid cancer Summary and conclusions Cardiovascular disease Acute myocardial infarct Stroke Venous thromboembolism Overall mortality Meat intake and cancer risk Comments and evaluation Estradiol-17ß Progesterone Testosterone References The purpose of this monograph is to provide a review and summary of the scientific information relative to a toxicological assessment of the safety of three endogenous hormones, estradiol-17ß, progesterone, and testosterone, with emphasis on information published since the review of the Committee at its thirty-second meeting (Annex 1, reference 80).

Estradiol: Synthesis, Functions and Effectiveness …

1.2.3 Biochemical parameters 1.2.3.1 Synthesis In mammals, estradiol, estrone, and estriol are synthesized from steroid precursors in the gonads, adrenal cortex, and placenta or through peripheral conversion of androgens in other tissues of mammals.