Dimethyl ether is used as a spray propellant and refrigerant

The process has two reaction steps. First, methanol is produced from synthesis gas by reaction (1) and (2), and then after removing by-product water, DME is produced by methanol dehydration reaction (3). All reactions (1), (2) and (3) are exothermic.
This indirect route has the advantages such as of enabling selection of the most optimum reactor type and operating conditions for each reaction steps, and becoming easy to remove reaction heat from the reactor due to less reaction heat against the direct route. The synthesis gas containing R value (H2-CO2) / (CO+CO2)= approx. 2 is ideally fed to methanol synthesis. In case of reforming natural gas with steam, CO2 is also used for the methanol synthesis.
Application of the high performance MRF-Z® reactor developed by TOYO which has the specific features of multi-stage indirect cooling and a radial flow to the methanol synthesis unit enables to construct the unit with a capacity of 6,000 ton/day in a single train for which other licensors' technologies require multiple reactors. TOYO DME is the process combines proven technologies with the simple and low cost DME synthesis applying design philosophy of methanol plant.
The process scheme of the indirect route DME synthesis developed by TOYO is as indicated below, composed of single train methanol synthesis and single train DME synthesis even in a large capacity DME plant of 3,500 tons per day.

Efficient Synthesis of Dimethyl Ether over HZSM-5 Supported on Medium-Surface-Area β-SiC Foam

The reactor has the characteristics of simple structure, convenient maintenance and inspection and good service performance, and is suitable for catalytic synthesis reaction occasions such as preparing dimethyl ether through methanol vapor phase dehydration, synthesizing methyl alcohol and the like.

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After separation of the organic and the aqueous layer, the amine can be recovered by addition of a strong base like NaOH or KOH to the acidic extract i.e., lidocaine synthesis. Note that amides are usually not basic enough to undergo the same protonation (pKa of conjugate acid: ~ -0.5).

Most neutral compounds cannot be converted into salts without changing their chemical nature. Many of these neutral compounds tend to react in undesired ways i.e., esters undergo hydrolysis upon contact with strong bases or strong acids. One has to keep this in mind as well when other compounds are removed. For instance, epoxides hydrolyze to form diols catalyzed by acids and bases. Ketones and aldehydes undergo condensation reactions catalyzed by both, acids and bases. Esters also hydrolyze to form carboxylic acids (or their salts) and the corresponding alcohol. In order to separate these compounds from each other, chromatographic techniques are often used, where the compounds are separated based on their different polarities (see Chromatography chapter).

Based on the discussion above the following overall separation scheme can be outlined. Which sequence is the most efficient highly depends on the target molecule. There is obviously no reason to go through the entire procedure if the compound sought after can be isolated in the first step already. Note that many of these steps are interchangeable in simple separation problems.

Dimethyl ether synthesis reactor - Patent - Europe PMC

Although dimethyl ether can be produced from biomass, methanol, and fossil fuels, the likely feedstock of choice for large-scale DME production in the United States is natural gas. DME is not commercially available in the United States at this time, but one company is developing small-scale plants to produce DME from natural gas at quantities ranging from 4,500 to 10,000 gallons per day.


Dimethyl ether (DME) is a synthetically produced alternative to diesel for use in specially designed compression ignition diesel engines. Under normal atmospheric conditions, DME is a colorless gas. It is used extensively in the chemical industry and as an aerosol propellant. Dimethyl ether requires about 75 pounds per square inch (psi) of pressure to be in liquid form. Because of this, DME's handling requirements are similar to those of —both must be kept in pressurized storage tanks at ambient temperature.