From valid test results available on the toxicity of benzoic acid and sodium benzoate to various aquatic organisms, these compounds appear to exhibit low to moderate toxicity in the aquatic compartment.
Benzoic acid has been detected in wastewater from the wood production industry in Norway and Sweden (Carlberg et al., 1986; Lindström & Österberg, 1986) and in foundry waste leachates (Ham et al., 1989), as well as in extracts of fly ash from municipal incinerators (Tong et al., 1984).
Rubber Chemical Resistance Chart - Mykin Inc
Yomota C, Isshiki K, Kato T, Kamikura M, Shiroishi Y, Nishijima M, Hayashi H, Hukasawa Y, Yokojama T, Yoneda M, Moriguchi H, Uchiyama H, Shiro T, Ito Y (1988) [Estimation of daily intake of 8 kinds of organic acids, 4 kinds of nucleic acids, ortho-phosphate, benzoic acid, glycerol monostearate, sodium alginate, sulfur dioxide, nitrate, nitrite, mannitol, sorbitol, glycerol and ammonium hydroxide from fresh foods purchased in Japan according to the market basket method.] Journal of the Japanese Society of Nutrition and Food Science, 41:11-16 (in Japanese).
How to produce amide from Benzoic acid and amine directly
From data provided by the German producers, emissions of benzoic acid from industrial processes were less than 525 kg per year into the atmosphere, less than 3 tonnes per year into the River Rhine, and 8 tonnes per year into sewage or water purification plants (BUA, 1995).
or you can employ benzoic acid directly with a coupling agent like ..
Other anthropogenic releases of benzoic acid and sodium benzoate into the environment are emissions into water and soil from their uses as preservatives in food, toothpastes, mouthwashes, dentifrices, and cosmetics.
Benzaldehyde is easily oxidized in air to benzoic acid
From its physicochemical properties (vapour pressure, Henry's law constant; see section 2), a significant volatilization of benzoic acid from water or soil is not expected.
The benzil prepared in Experiment 33 is usually of sufficient ..
The use of a synthetic sewage inoculated with laboratory bacterial cultures led to complete degradation of benzoic acid after 14 days under anaerobic conditions (Kameya et al., 1995).
Crystallization is used to purify a solid
Three Japanese studies reported average daily intakes of benzoic acid from processed foodstuffs to be 10.9 mg per person (Toyoda et al., 1983a) and 1.4 mg per person (Toyoda et al., 1983b; Yomota et al., 1988), corresponding to 0.02-0.2 mg/kg body weight (for persons with a body weight of 50-70 kg).
The third step is a condensation reaction of benzil with ..
COMPARATIVE KINETICS AND METABOLISM IN LABORATORY ANIMALS AND HUMANS After oral ingestion of benzoic acid and sodium benzoate, there is a rapid absorption (of undissociated benzoic acid) from the gastrointestinal tract in experimental animals or humans (US FDA, 1972a, 1973).