Muscarinic receptor antagonists oppose the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. Examples of antagonists include and (scopolamine) which are found in the plants Atropa belladonna and Datura stramonium. Ingestion of these antagonists can cause a range of peripheral (flushing, dry mouth, blurred vision, dilated pupils, tachycardia, urinary retention, constipation and hyperthermia) and central (confusion, hallucinations agitation, coma and convulsions) effects. Synthetic and semi-synthetic antagonists have been developed and these differ in their pharmacokinetics (duration of action and distribution) and selectivity for the muscarinic receptor subtypes. Therapeutic uses of muscarinic antagonists include:
Obviously, cell systems for maintaining membranes, metabolism, enzyme synthesis, and gene preservation are inter-linked, and whatever affects one will affect the other.
Daysi Araujo, la mas deseada del peru
Since most North Americans are kickers, they tend not to become mushroom poisoning statistics. Europeans, however, are pickers, and have suffered as many as 100 fatalities in two weeks. In 1975, a Swiss newspaper reported 54 local deaths during a short period in late summer. Which fungi killed these people? What are the toxins involved? We recognize eight different kinds of mushroom poisoning, which are listed in the. A quick look at this table will show that fatalities are usually caused only by groups I, II and III. In fact, 50% of all serious mushroom poisonings, and 95% of all fatalities, are caused by members of a single genus, Amanita, which fruits in late summer and fall.