The prolonged intake of aristolochic acid (AA) hasbeen shown to be associated with the development of certain renaldisorders in rats (). Renaltubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis are the early symptoms ofAA nephropathy. Differentiated proteins have been identified in thekidney tissues through proteomics investigations (). Upregulated proteins identifiedincluded ornithine aminotransferase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, actin,aspartoacylase, 3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase andperoxiredoxin-1 ().Downregulated proteins included regucalcin, ATP synthase subunit β,glutamate dehydrogenase 1, glutamate-cysteine ligase regulatorysubunit, dihydropteridine reductase, hydroxyacyl-coenzyme Adehydrogenase, voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 1,prohibitin and adenylate kinase isoenzyme 4 (). Thus, these identified proteinmarkers are suggested to have biological and medicalsignificance.
In order to get better control over catalytic activity, molecular weight, and polymer compositions, considerable attention has been devoted to the design and synthesis of well-defined single-site catalysts. Since the discovery of Brookhart-Gibson-type Fe and Co complexes ligated by 2,6-bis(arylimino)pyridine, numerous transition metal complexes bearing different ligands have been developed and explored in the field of olefin polymerization and oligomerization [24–30] . Seminal advances are also realized in the aspects of 1,3-diene polymerization [31–35] .
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With this project and the new compounding plant in Yesan, Chung Nam Province, Korea, which is expected to begin operations from the end of 2015, BASF’s overall compounding capacities in Asia will increase from the current 130,000 to a total of 225,000 metric tons.
Nanocomposites: synthesis, structure, properties and …
By far the greatest use of butadiene is in the manufacture of co-polymers produced from phenylethene (styrene) and butadiene, and propenonitrile (acrylonitrile), butadiene and phenylethene (styrene), . The next biggest use is in the manufacture of poly(butadiene), a synthetic rubber, which is principally used as one of the components in the rubber used for car tyres:
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extremely flammable liquid and gas. Avoid polymerization initiators. Relatively nontoxic. Suspected chronic carcinogen. Acutely irritating to respiratory tract. 1,3-Butadiene (1) is used in the laboratory by condensing the gas directly into a reaction vessel, or by forming a saturated solution of the gas in the reaction solvent. For reactions run below rt (e.g. Lewis acid-catalyzed reactions), normal reaction flasks can be used. For higher temperature reactions, sealed tubes are required to prevent escape of (1). A particularly convenient, reusable apparatus is available from Ace Glass, Inc., and consists of a heavy-walled glass tube sealed on one end and threaded on the other. The threaded end can be sealed with a heavy Teflon plug fitted with an O-ring.
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Other synthetic rubbers made from butadiene include neoprene which is poly(2-chlorobuta-1,3-diene), often known as polychloroprene. Chloroprene is made from butadiene, by first reacting it with chlorine in the gas phase at ca 500 K to form 3,4-dichlorobut-1-ene and 1,4-dichlorobut-2-ene. The former, on reaction with sodium hydroxide, yields chloroprene: