Toxicity of ammonium salts and urea in rabbits and goats.

Because anhydrous ammonia needs to go through the process (see Soils - Part 5), it is more resistant to losses from the soil by leaching or denitrification because it is converted by bacterial action to the nitrate form more slowly than other nitrogen sources.

It is manufactured by reacting anhydrous ammonia with a mixture of nitric acid and sulfuric acid.

Both processes have been described as having measurable effects on ammonia levels in water; however, the relative significance of each will vary according to specific environmental conditions (API, 1981).

Synthesis of Urea from Ammonia and Carbon Dioxide

In particular, the conversion of ammonium to nitrate appears to be important in the acidification of soil and water in carbonate-poor environments (Roelofs, in press; Schuurkes, in press).

Urea and Ammonia Metabolism and the Control of …

The estimated ammonia contribution from the fertilizer industry was based on 1978 production figures for ammonia, ammonium nitrate, urea solutions, and urea solids, and on BPT guideline limits.


Exposure of Farm Animals Farm animals are exposed to ammonia through feed containing urea or various ammonium salts and to atmospheric ammonia due to bacterial decomposition and volatilization of ammonia from animal wastes.

Urea cycle; ammonia metabolism Flashcards | Quizlet

Point sources of ammonia Major man-made point sources discharging ammonia into surface waters include sewage treatment plants, and plants producing fertilizers, steel, petroleum, leather, inorganic chemicals, non-ferrous metals, and ferroalloys, and meat processing plants.

Urea and NPN for Cattle and Sheep - 1.608 - Extension

Oral exposure (a) Non-protein nitrogen additives Urea and various ammonium salts have been used for several years as non-protein nitrogen sources in ruminant nutrition.

Synthesis of arylamines - Organic Chemistry Portal

On the basis of the number of cattle in the USA and an average excretion of 31 kg urea per animal per year, it has been estimated that 3400 x 103 tonnes/year of ammonia are produced by cattle in the USA (API, 1981).

Synthesis of Nitriles - Organic Chemistry Portal

Concentrations of up to 170 mg NH3/litre did not adversely affect denitrifying and ammonifying bacteria; a concentration of 220 mg/litre caused a reduction in metabolic processes.