Dietary saponins reduce protein digestibility probably by formation of sparingly digestible saponin-protein complexes and obstruct the absorption of micronutrients (). Despite the toxicity concerns associated with the consumption of saponin containing plant materials, studies by revealed that phenolics-saponins fraction from defatted kenaf seed meal is rich in antioxidants and therefore, could serve as a potential active ingredient for nutraceuticals, functional foods as well as natural food preservatives. Likewise, α-hederin and hederasaponin-C from and hederacolchisides-E and -F from exhibited antioxidant activities that were comparable with standard antioxidants such as α-tocopherol, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) ().
Two engineered deoxysugar biosynthetic pathways for the biosynthesis of TDP-3-O-demethyl-D-chalcose or TDP-L-rhamnose in conjunction with the glycosyltransferaseauxiliary protein pair DesVII/DesVIII were expressed in a S.
vol.42 no.4 São Paulo Oct./Dec
Flavonoids are classified based on their biosynthetic origin. For instance, chalcones, flavanones, flavan-3-ols and flavan-3, 4-diols, are intermediates, whereas anthocyanidins, proanthocyanidins, flavones and flavonols are end products of the biosynthetic pathways (). Additionally, the isoflavones and related isoflavonoids are other two classes of flavonoid in which the 2-phenyl side chain of flavanone isomerizes at the 3 position (; ).
The Biosynthesis of Bacterial Polysaccharides - [PDF …
Nutritional yeast is extraordinarily rich in nucleic acids. In fact, nutritional yeast contains approximately 6% RNA – among the highest of known foods. In the protocols Dr. Frank describes in Nucleic Acid Nutrition and Therapy he used both nutritional yeast and high RNA extracts of nutritional yeast to obtain spectacular healing and regeneration. Furthermore, nutritional yeast contains additional functional and beneficial components such as beta-1,3 glucan, trehalose, mannan, d-ribose, and glutathione. Studies have show that these components have potential health benefits such as, improved immune response, normalization of cholesterol, and cellular normalization properties.
THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF BACTERIAL POLYSACCHARIDES1,2,3 By B
Polyphenolics from exhibited anti-ulcer activity and modulated leukocyte function as exemplified by their ameliorative potentials against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesion in animal models (). There are claims by that regular or occasional consumption of polyphenol-rich cocoa exerts beneficial effects on , increases cerebral blood flow and possibly, for treatment of dementia. According to dietary polyphenolic supplementation exert desirable outcome in complementary therapy when ingested in large quantity. From the reports of , experimental models confirmed that phenolics from exhibited beneficial effects against platelet aggregation (), high (), atherosclerosis (), hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia (; ), inflammation (), hepatocarcinogenesis (), DNA damage and clastogenic effect (). Furthermore, flavonoids and polyphenol from such as flavan-3-ols, epicatechin and catechin are potential inhibitors of pro-inflammatory mediators in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-sensitized Caco-2 cells and exhibited protective effect in colon cancer (). Bioactive principles from effectively down-regulated cyclo-oxygenase-2 and interleukin-8 (IL-8) as well as inducible nitric-oxide synthase activity by inhibiting Nuclear Factor (NF)-kB translocation and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) phosphorylation (; ). In another study, quercetin, the active phenolic component in kiwifruit, mediated by its -scavenging activity, prevented -induced inhibition of gap-junction intercellular communication in rat liver epithelial cells that is required for cell-cell communication in order to maintain homeostasis by facilitating direct exchanges of essential cellular metabolites and messengers less than 1-2 kDa (e.g., Na+, K+, Ca2+, cyclic AMP and ATP) (; ; ). Additionally, quercetin possesses chemopreventive activity against azoxymethane-induced colonic tumorigenesis in mice and pre-neoplastic lesions in rat hepatocarcinogenesis ().