Bowling Alone: America's Declining SocialCapital (1995) is an essay by . Putnam expanded it into the book BowlingAlone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community(2000, ISBN 0-7432-0304-6).
Third, there is a strong argument here against those who wish to concentrate the bulk of resources on groups and individuals who present the strongest social problems (currently the received thinking among many policymakers). If we follow Putnam’s analysis through then we can see that, for example, crime can be reduced, educational achievement enhanced and better health fostered through the strengthening of social capital. Significantly this entails working across communities – and in particular sustaining the commitment and capacities already involved in community organizations and enthusiast groups, and encouraging those on the cusp of being actively involved. The majority of the people we are talking about here cannot be classified as suffering from multiple disadvantage, will not be engaged in criminal activity, and will be (or have been) engaged with education systems and/or the world of work. In other words, open and generic work needs to be afforded a far higher priority – and so-called ‘issue-based’ work needs to be more closely interrogated as to the benefits it brings.
Robert Putnam, “Bowling Alone: America's Declining …
Diversity does produce ‘bad race relations’ or ethnically-defined group hostility, our findings suggest. Rather, inhabitants of diverse communities tend to withdraw from collective life, to distrust their neighbours, regardless of the colour of their skin, to withdraw even from close friends, to expect the worst from their community and its leaders, to volunteer less, give less to charity and work on community projects less often, to register to vote less, to agitate for social reform , but have less faith that they can actually make a difference, and to huddle unhappily in front of the television. Note that this pattern encompasses attitudes and behavior, bridging and bonding social capital, public and private connections. Diversity, at least in the short run, seems to bring out the turtle in all of us. (Putnam 2007)
British and Irish Political Geography
of nylon cord, a package of big plastic sandwich bags, two hunting knivesand, for good measure, a .22-caliber, single-action six-shooter that hisparents had given him. When he arrived at the school, no one paid anyattention to him. He pulled out the six-shooter, shattered a mirror withone shot and ordered the five women, a 3-year-old and a 3-month-old baby into the back room. One ofthe women, who may have thought about safety in numbers said to Robert,"There will be 40 people here in a few minutes." Robertreplied, "I'm sorry, but I didn't bring enough ammunition forthem." Once they were all in the room, he found out the big plasticsandwich bags were too small to fit over a person's head. However, hestill had his knives and the six-shooter. He ordered them to lie down onthe floor like spokes on a wheel, their heads together at the center and theirfeet out at the perimeter. Police later called this formation the"Wheel of Death." Mary Olsen began to and he asked his captives what she was doing. One of thewomen said, "She's if youdon't mind." He replied, "I do," and then aimed for the back ofMary's head and shot her to death. Along with his other , he wasn't an accurateshot.
THOMAS KUHN'S CONCEPT OF PARADIGM, i
He didn'tget much further than that either as, during the chase, he swallowed a cap ofplant poison E605. By the time the sunset on this horrific day, Walterhad died in . Meanwhile,men who drove the garbage trucks were able to break down the gate Walter hadwedged closed and extinguished the fire with blankets and clothes. Theystopped cars in the street and had them transport the wounded students to areahospitals. The students had burns over 90% of their bodies. Eightstudents died from their injuries.
What's the Matter With Kids Today? Not a Thing
Doty had her clothes torn off from the blast and thegrisly scene even affected the news reporters as they came to the site. Seventeen other children were wounded. Earl and Robert Taylor neededtheir legs amputated to survive. Paul had a been convicted twice in Louisianaand once in Texas and for burglary and theft.