(ii) The dynamics of genome size at the population level

Our approach is consistent with the 'assisted gene flow' of Aitken and Whitlock (2013) and the 'assisted range expansion' and 'assisted population migration' of Winder et al.

However, becauseassisted colonization established 20 populations onU.S.

Whether to transplant in spring or fall is always a question. Fall is normally the best time because roots on a new plant need help establishing themselves. The shallow root system can't take in all the water it may need to survive and a drought can spell disaster. Water them frequently in the morning. Mature plants are much hardier and Mother Nature seems to take good care of them under normal conditions. Care for new plants for 2-3 years to help them get established. One problem with fall transplanting is that it makes a plant more susceptible to frost heave in climates where freezing and thawing cycles are common. In that case, rhododendrons transplant best in the spring. It must be noted that maintaining the proper moisture level in the summer is very difficult after spring transplanting. Make sure you watch the plant after it was moved like you would a new plant. Its roots are compromised and it will need a reliable source of moisture. If the weather has a dry spell, make sure you water any newly planted rhododendrons, large or small.


(iii) Genome size evolution across the plant tree of life

Make sure that the plant is getting wet. Rhododendron guru Harold Greer noted: "Quite often a plant will get completely dry and then no matter how much water you apply, the rootball will just keep shedding it. The top of the soil may seem wet, and the soil around the plant may even be very wet, but the actual rootball of the plant is bone dry. This is especially true for newly planted rhododendrons, and it is the major reason for failure, or at least less than great success with that new plant. It is hard to believe that a plant can be within mere inches of a sprinkler that has been running for hours and still be dry, yet it can be SO TRUE!".


Plant in rich, well-drained site with thick layer of winter mulch.

Because the roots grow near the surface, a bed prepared especially for rhododendrons and azaleas need not be more than 12 inches deep; deep planting or too much mulch in the growing season keeps the roots from getting the air they need. In fact, it is a good idea to set rhododendrons about 1 inch higher than they grew at the nursery. Do not set new plants any deeper than the original soil level. Ensure the root collar is exposed and free of soil and mulch. Rhododendrons and azaleas are subject to collar rot when root flares are buried. When planting in poorly drained soils create raised beds or provide sub-surface drainage. Plant with the root collar exposed. If soil is compacted, prepare planting area by cultivating and incorporating organic matter. Balled-and-burlapped plants may be transplanted in blossom but it is better to transplant them when they are dormant.

Those spots already exist in other parts of Minnesota, Frelich said.

Unlike other shrubs in the landscape, azaleas are shallow rooted and can be easily injured by excess fertilizer. In fact, some experienced azalea growers do not apply chemical fertilizes at all. They have found that plants usually can obtain sufficient nutrients for growth and flowering from the organic matter added to the planting hole and from the decaying mulch on the soil surface.

2008), and populations (Rehfeldt 2004; Tchebakova et al.

Chlorosis: Fertilizers, however, are occasionally needed. Pale green leaves or inter-veinal are good indicators of a need for fertilizer. If you do fertilize, avoid using general garden fertilizers for rhododendrons, azaleas and other acid-loving plants. Use those specially formulated for acid-loving plants and follow directions. Fertilizers supplying the ammonium form of nitrogen are best.

These are the first trees of their kind to be planted so far north.

Where there's spruce-fir forest, it might be crazy to start planting pinon-juniper now, even if models say it would be good pinon-juniper habitat by the end of the century, he said.