The passage of two to three protons is required to synthesize oneATP

A strict kinetic and stoichiometric correlation between ATP synthesis and O2 uptake only exists during the initial phase of the entire process of oxidative phosphorylation. The standard reaction medium contained 0.02 mg of SMP protein supplemented with 10 mM succinate and 50 μM ADP. After the SMP consumed all the O2 and there was no trace of ATP left in the medium (see Fig. b) the reactions were initiated by consecutively adding 18.4 nmols of O in (a), 2.76 in (b) and 0.92 in (c). The time course of both O2 consumption and ATP synthesis were simultaneously recorded during the first 2 seconds of the process of oxidative phosphorylation. Each unit of O2 uptake in the y-axis represents 0.036 nmols of O for the additions of 0.92 and 2.76 nmols of O, and 0.197 nmols of O for the addition of 18.4 nmols of O. Each unit of ATP synthesis represents 0.03, 0.06 and 0.2 nmols of ATP for the additions of 0.92, 2.76 and 18.4 nmols of O, respectively. Traces shown are representative of at least three independent determinations of each condition.

Keywords: Energy transduction, proton gradient, free energy of electron flow and ATP synthesis

The free energy necessary to generate ATP is extracted from theoxidation of NADH and FADH by theelectron-transport chain, a series of four proteins complexes throughwhich electrons pass from lower to higher standard reductionpotentials. F 20-8.

2) Conformational change of L to T site that catalyzes ATPformation

Oxygen dependence of the oxidative phosphorylation process of ATP synthesis.

C. Mechanism of ATP SynthesisThe free energy of the electrochemical proton gradient across themitochondrial membrane is harnessed in the synthesis of ATP byproton-translocating ATP synthase.

How the Proton Gradient Drives Atp Synthesis | …

ATP is generated from ADP and P in mitochondria but is utilized in thecytoplasm. The P produced mustreenter the mitochondria.

proton pump, proton gradient and ATP synthase

9. Answer: C. Chapter 21, Objective 9: How many ATPs are synthesized by ATP synthase for each NADH oxidized by the electron transport chain? How many for FAD(2H)?

ATP synthase is an enzyme which helps in ATP synthesis.

NOTE: In calculations using this equation, and whenever you haveconcentration terms inside a logarithm term, remember that the properterms are really and not concentrations. Theactivity of the solute is its actual concentration divided by itsstandard concentration, so activities are unitless (which is good,because it's very hard to attach a physical meaning to units like). Click tolearn how to compute activies for solutes, gases, hydrogen ions, andwater or other solvents.

and catalyses the synthesis of ATP from ADP and ..

This controlled impermeability of the inner mitochondrial membraneto most ions, metabolites, and low molecular mass compounds permitsthe generation of ionic gradients across this barrier and results inthe compartmentalization of metabolic functions between cytosol andmitochondria.


11. Answer: D. Chapter 21, Objective 11: What portion of the ETC is inhibited by CN-? What is the effect of cyanide inhibition upon proton pumping and ATP synthesis?