Protein Synthesis | NOVA Labs | PBS

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a mature, copy of a gene that describes the exact sequence in which amino acids should be bonded together to form a protein. Transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules are responsible for picking up particular amino acids and transferring them to the ribosomes for assembly into polypeptides. Each tRNA molecule contains a triplet nucleotide sequence that can base-pair with a codon on the mRNA. This triplet nucleotide sequence on tRNA that is complementary to the codon of mRNA is called an anticodon. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is used in the manufacture of ribosomes where mRNA and tRNA come together in the synthesis of proteins.


Research in the Moremen lab focuses on the structure, regulation, and localization of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis, recognition, and catabolism of mammalian glycoproteins.

Protein Synthesis Race (HTML5) - Bioman Bio

In this activity, students use their knowledge of DNA structure, protein synthesis, and mutations to investigate different mutations in the gene known to cause Cystic Fibrosis. This activity helps the students realize that you can have genetic variation within a single gene. That there are multiple alleles for most genes (in fact there are about a thousand alleles for the cystic fibrosis gene) each created by a different mutation for that gene. Some of the mutations cause a change in the protein product and some have no effect. ( - AAAS Benchmarks and - )

Race to build a protein in this fun game about protein synthesis.

by Lisa Weise, Lori Buwalda, and Barb Neureither

AAAS Benchmark

When teaching protein synthesis, you may want to use this activity if you go into more detail. Include the ideas that when the DNA is transcribed into RNA it must then have the sections that represent the introns removed leaving only the exons which makeup the mRNA(click here for more and ). As the human genome project progressed, scientists realized we don't have 100,000 genes as was originally thought. The new estimate became 75,000, then 50,000, then 35,000, and now around 25,000 (it may have changed since this was written). If that is true, then the idea that one gene makes one protein seems impossible since we have more proteins than genes. So how is this possible? Scientists now believe that a single gene can make multiple proteins by splicing together different combinations of their exons. That is what this activity is all about. Using the idea from the previous activity, Protein Synthesis and Words, they make their DNA sequence result in a group of words that can make more than one sentence (protein). By spicing out the introns (nonsense words) and combining different groups of exons (words) they end up with different proteins (sentences).

DNA, RNA and Protein Synthesis - Modesto Junior …

DNA transcription is the process of making a single strand complementary RNA copy of DNA. Data is copied from the DNA to the RNA with the aid of the enzyme RNA polymerase. Using this process, the genetic information stored in the DNA is carried in the form of RNA to other parts of the cell. In eukaryotic cells a gene begins with a promoter region and an initiation code and ends with a termination code. However, the intervening gene sequence contains patches of nucleotides that have no meaning. If they were used in protein synthesis, the resulting proteins would be worthless. Eukaryotic cells prune these segments from the mRNA after transcription. RNA polmerase synthesizes a strand of pre-mRNA that initially includes copies of the meaningful mRNA coding sequences (exons) and the meaningless mRNA coding sequences (introns). Soon after its manufacture, this pre-mRNA molecule has the meaningless introns clipped out and the exons spliced together in the final version of mature mRNA

Gene Expression DNA Transcription Protein Synthesis - PhET

: Observe a real world application of protein synthesis as you watch the process in a step by step animation developed by The Genetic Science Learning Center at the University of Utah.