Protein Synthesis Steps - Protein Synthesis

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER).
Topics Gene Expression; DNA Transcription; Protein Synthesis; Cells; Stoichastics of Molecular Interactions; Description Express yourself through your genes.
The protein synthesis page provides a detailed discussion of the steps in protein synthesis and and eukaryotes Diphtheria toxin protein.
The differences between Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes • S = synthesis of DNA which phosphorylate protein targets involved in the control.
Protein synthesis is accomplished through a process called translation.

Eukaryotes Animation of Protein Synthesis.Protein Synthesis - Part 2 Translation.

As the sun rises, PER molecules become susceptible to degradation (shown in pink). Over the course of several hours, all PER protein disappears. In the absence of PER, transcription of the gene begins again.

Protein synthesis begins with ..

In translation, RNA and ribosomes work together to produce proteins.Termination of protein synthesis.

As the animation begins, it is night. The CYC/CLOCK complex is bound to the promoter, and the gene is transcribed. Transcription is repressed when PER protein molecules interact directly with the CYC/CLOCK complex. After the sun rises, however, PER molecules degrade, thereby releasing the repression of the CYC/CLOCK complex. As a result, gene transcription resumes.

SparkNotes: SAT Subject Test: Biology: Protein Synthesis

Like most genes, the DNA sequence of the gene contains an upstream regulatory region called the promoter (left red rectangle), followed by the DNA template for mRNA transcription (right red rectangle). For the gene to be transcribed, two proteins, CYCLE (CYC) and CLOCK, must bind to a DNA region called the E-box in the gene promoter.

Glossary | Linus Pauling Institute | Oregon State University

Like the gene, transcription of the () gene is activated by the proteins CYC and CLOCK. Following transcription, and messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules are translated in the cytoplasm to make TIM and PER proteins. TIM and PER proteins bind to one another to form a heterodimer (a molecule formed by joining two nonidentical molecules). The formation of a complex with TIM protects PER from rapid degradation.

BioCoach Activity Concept 6: The Transcription Process

The addition of phosphate groups to the PER protein accelerates its degradation. As PER protein is synthesized in the cytoplasm, doubletime (shown as a triangle) causes the degradation of PER proteins (pink). However, PER proteins that have formed complexes with TIM proteins are resistant to degradation by doubletime. PER/TIM complexes enter the nucleus and some interact with CYC/CLOCK, resulting in the repression of transcription of the and genes.

Unit 08: DNA Learning Center 3D Animation Library - …

The activated () gene in the nucleus of the cell is seen transcribing messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules. As the animation begins, mRNA moves to the cytoplasm, where ribosomes translate the mRNA into PERIOD (PER) protein molecules. Some PER molecules (shown in pink) degrade shortly after synthesis; others (shown in red) are stable and accumulate in the cytoplasm.