This processrequires the use of (membrane proteins).

All tRNA's are similar in structure. The TC arm participates in binding of the charged tRNA to a site on the ribosome where protein synthesis occurs. The DHU (or D) arm is necessary for recognition by the proper aminoacyl tRNA synthase (the enzyme). The acceptor end is at the 3' terminus and ends in the sequence CCA. The anticodon arm consists of seven nucleotides, the sequence of which is read 3' to 5' (opposite convention to the usual 5' to 3').

Discrete segments of DNA, called genes, encode the instructions for making proteins.

This study examines the mechanism of the rapid decrease in cardiac muscle protein synthesis during rodent hindlimb non-weight bearing. Polysomes isolated from rat hearts 8 h after suspension show less RNA in the polysome pool and a shift in polysome size toward fewer ribosomes per mRNA; 18 h after suspension, the size shift persists, but the amount of RNA in the polysome pool returns to control values. These data are consistent with a decrease in the rate of initiation of protein synthesis. At both 8 and 12 h of suspension, the cardiac polysomes show a 78 and 93% increased association with the nascent polypeptide chaperone protein 70-kDa heat-shock cognate/heat-shock protein (HSC/HSP-70), respectively, that persists after 7 days of non-weight bearing. Because the dissociation of HSC/HSP-70 from unfolded protein can be modulated by ATP, we measured the adenosine nucleotide pools and found a 53% decrease in ATP levels after 18 h of suspension. We propose a mechanism in which a shift of HSC/HSP-70 to the nascent polypeptide indirectly inhibits protein synthesis initiation.


The proton channel and rotating stalk are shown in blue.

In the example below, a ligand molecule (e.g., acetylcholine)binds to the membrane protein.

The fraction of ribosomes loaded on polysomes is about 95% in logarithmically growing Tetrahymena thermophila, and about 4% in starved cells. Cytoplasmic extracts from cells in these two physiological states were used to develop column chromatographic methods for the purification of polysomes. Bio-Gel A 1.5 m was found to separate total cytoplasmic ribosomes from many soluble proteins, including RNAse, with no detectable change in the polysome size distribution. Polysomes can be separated from monosomes and non-polysomal mRNA by chromatography on Bio-Gel A 15 m without size selection. These methods can easily be adapted to large scale preparations of polysomes, even from cells where a small fraction of the ribosomes is on polysomes. A method is described for reversible precipitation of polysomes and monosomes from dilute solutions at pH 5.3 which greatly facilitates polysome isolation. Hybridization of 3H-labeled polyU to RNA isolated from column fractions has been used to demonstrate that purification of EDTA released polysomal mRNA can be performed using the column chromatography procedures described here. These methods have been employed to demonstrate that most of the cytoplasmic mRNA in log-phase Tetrahymena is loaded onto polysomes while most of the mRNA is starved cells exists in a non-polysomal form.


Effect of Insulin on Protein Synthesis | Diabetes

N2 - Ribosomes of high purity were isolated from fat cells by discontinuous sucrose gradient centrifugation. Approximately 23% of the ribosomes were membrane bound. A reproducible fraction of ribosomes was recovered as polysomes capable of incorporating [3H]leucine into peptides in a cell-free system. Insulin (0.1-1.0 mU/ml) produced an increase in polysomal activity. Linear sucrose gradient profiles also revealed an increase in the ratio of polysomes to total ribosomes. Coincident with this effect, insulin increased the lipoprotein lipase activity fraction inhibitable by cycloheximide (0.01 mg/ml), and the immunotitratable enzyme activity. Insulin also enhanced the incorporation of labeled amino acids into adipose tissue immunoprecipitable lipoprotein lipase and total fat cell proteins. Cordycepin (0.1 mg/ml) or alpha-amanitin (10 micrograms/ml) partially inhibited insulin effects on ribosomes and protein synthesis but not on lipoprotein lipase. EGTA (1mM) prevented all of the insulin effects, whereas the calcium ionophore A-23187 (2 microM) augmented the hormone actions. The ionophore alone partially mimicked the insulin effects. In adipocytes, insulin increased the size of the protein-synthesizing polysomal pool by a mechanism which, in part, requires nuclear mRNA processing. Insulin, however, increased lipoprotein lipase synthesis independent of nuclear events. Calcium ions may be important for the expression of these insulin effects.

Insulin stimulates protein synthesis; ..

N2 - This study examines the mechanism of the rapid decrease in cardiac muscle protein synthesis during rodent hindlimb non-weight bearing. Polysomes isolated from rat hearts 8 h after suspension show less RNA in the polysome pool and a shift in polysome size toward fewer ribosomes per mRNA; 18 h after suspension, the size shift persists, but the amount of RNA in the polysome pool returns to control values. These data are consistent with a decrease in the rate of initiation of protein synthesis. At both 8 and 12 h of suspension, the cardiac polysomes show a 78 and 93% increased association with the nascent polypeptide chaperone protein 70-kDa heat-shock cognate/heat-shock protein (HSC/HSP-70), respectively, that persists after 7 days of non-weight bearing. Because the dissociation of HSC/HSP-70 from unfolded protein can be modulated by ATP, we measured the adenosine nucleotide pools and found a 53% decrease in ATP levels after 18 h of suspension. We propose a mechanism in which a shift of HSC/HSP-70 to the nascent polypeptide indirectly inhibits protein synthesis initiation.

Physiology of rat-liver polysomes: Protein synthesis by ..

AB - This study examines the mechanism of the rapid decrease in cardiac muscle protein synthesis during rodent hindlimb non-weight bearing. Polysomes isolated from rat hearts 8 h after suspension show less RNA in the polysome pool and a shift in polysome size toward fewer ribosomes per mRNA; 18 h after suspension, the size shift persists, but the amount of RNA in the polysome pool returns to control values. These data are consistent with a decrease in the rate of initiation of protein synthesis. At both 8 and 12 h of suspension, the cardiac polysomes show a 78 and 93% increased association with the nascent polypeptide chaperone protein 70-kDa heat-shock cognate/heat-shock protein (HSC/HSP-70), respectively, that persists after 7 days of non-weight bearing. Because the dissociation of HSC/HSP-70 from unfolded protein can be modulated by ATP, we measured the adenosine nucleotide pools and found a 53% decrease in ATP levels after 18 h of suspension. We propose a mechanism in which a shift of HSC/HSP-70 to the nascent polypeptide indirectly inhibits protein synthesis initiation.