C3 plant - Biology-Online Dictionary

If they utilized CAM photosynthesis, they would be able to take in CO2 during the night- and daytime and, like C4 plants, would be able to store CO2 for use during time when there is little to no sunlight for long periods of time, and therefore would (most likely) year-long growing periods.
The basics:
Photosynthesis is the process that plant life uses to create food.

Niyogi KK (2000) Safety valves for photosynthesis. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 3: 455–460.

Yamori W, Hikosaka K and Way D (2014) Temperature response of photosynthesis in C3, C4, and CAM plants: temperature acclimation and temperature adaptation. Photosynthesis Research 119(1–2): 101–117.

Temperature response of photosynthesis in C3, C4, and …

Osmond C and Chow W (1988) Ecology of photosynthesis in the sun and shade: summary and prognostications. Functional Plant Biology 15: 1–9.

The C3 and C4 refer to how these classes of plants assimilate carbon dioxide into their systems. During the first steps in CO2 assimilation, C3 plants form a pair of three carbon-atom molecules. C4 plants, on the other hand, initially form four carbon-atom molecules. In C3 plants CO2 enters the leaf through the stomata, which are microscopic pores found on the under-surface of leaves and on stems. They occur in the epidermal tissue. The CO2 then diffuses into the mesophyll cells where a bifunctional enzyme called Rubisco fixes carbon dioxide or molecular oxygen, which leads to photosynthesis or photorespiration. The Rubisco catalyzes the CO2 of and forms two Phosphoglycerate (PGA) molecules, which is a three carbon compound. This PGA is converted to sugars and transported to the growing leaves, roots and reproductive structures. This form of photosynthesis is found in all major plant families or in about 300,000 species and make up 95% of all plants. Typical C3 plants include: barley, sunflower, rice, tomatoes, wheat, peanuts, cotton, sugar beet, oats, and most trees and are found in typically cooler and wetter environments. C4 plants on the other hand the CO2 enters through the stomata again, but goes into the mesophyll tissue, where it is fixed by PepCarboxylase to form , which unlike Rubisco does not have the ability to fix oxygen, which contributes to lower photorespiratory carbon losses in C4 plants. This Oxaloacetate is then converted to malate, which is a four carbon molecule and transported to the bundle sheath cells. From this CO2 is released and forms sucrose and starch. These plants have a special mechanism within their leaves by which they are able to increase CO2 concentration several times higher than ambient levels. These plants tend to be found in warmer and water-limited environments. Typical examples include many tropical grasses and agricultural crops such as maize (corn), sugarcane, and sorghum. Characteristically, C4-plants have higher rates of photosynthesis than C3-plants. Photosynthesis in C4 plants does not saturate but increases at high light intensities and can continue at very low CO2 concentrations. Subsequently, these plants have rapid growth rates and higher biomass and economic yields than C3-plants.

CAM plants temporally separate carbon fixation and the Calvin cycle

C4 plants and CAM plants have devised ways to overcome the rough environment.
How does it affect you?
C3 is the most common form of photosynthesis, and is found in most plants, including Tomatoes, Pepper, Lettuce, and many other types of vegetables and flowers.
What would change if these plants used a different type of photosynthesis?
If these plants used C4 photosynthesis, they would be able to store CO2 for later use during more dreary months.

Types of Photosynthesis: C3, C4 and CAM

Structure of Chloroplasts
Chloroplasts are specialized organelles in plant cells for the purpose of photosynthesis. Each cell may contain 1-1000 copies of chloroplasts. Chloroplasts are double membrane structure with stacked disc-like membrane structure (called thylakoids) inside the stroma. Light reactions of photosynthesis occur in thylakoids, and dark reactions occur in stroma.

Photosynthesis — bozemanscience

What is photosynthesis and why it is important
Photosynthesis is a process during which energy from light is harvested and used to drive synthesis of organic carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water, generating oxygen. Photosynthesis is the only way that radiant energy from the sun can be converted into organic molecules for plants and animals to consume.

photosynthesis | Importance, Process, & Reactions - …

Flexas J and Medrano H (2002) Drought‐inhibition of photosynthesis in C3 plants: stomatal and non‐stomatal limitations revisited. Annals of Botany 89: 183–189.