Molecular Biology of Stress-Induced Phenylpropanoid …

Inrecent decades, with the advances of new technologies, many genomes of economiccrop plants (several tens of them) have been sequenced and assembled. Theavailability of these sequenced genomes allows us to conduct more explicit andcutting-edge investigations that enable scientists to effectively deciphermolecular mechanisms related to the domestication and improvement of these cropplants. For example, upon assembly and analysis in allotetraploid genome ofextensively grown Upland cotton () with componentdiploid genomes of its probable progenitors, cultivated cotton ()and wild cotton (), differential regulation of plant hormoneethylene and cellulose biosynthesis were observed on the cell wall expansion ofsingle-celled natural fibers. Furthermore, comparative analysis of the cacao () genome with cotton and other genomes revealed close evolutionaryrelationships with the common ancestral paleopolyploid origin among many plantspecies. Likewise, the coffee genome provided insight into the convergentevolution of caffeine biosynthesis, the grapevine genome revealed ancestralhexaploidization while the oilseed genome was used forstudying early allopolyploid evolution. In addition, the peach () genome helped identify unique patterns of genetic diversity,domestication and evolution. The two whole genome duplication events in thepalaeopolyploid soybean () were found to be related withsignificant gene diversification, gene loss as well as chromosomerearrangements. Assembly of the cucumber () genomeresulted in unraveling a new biochemical pathway leading towards bitness, aunique taste from cucumber. Besides these and many more published draft genomesof economic crop plants, we welcome reports of any other unfinished butemerging genomes of economic importance.

Molecular Biology of Stress-Induced Phenylpropanoid and Isoflavonoid ..

The rich chemical diversity of plants is the result of ongoing evolutionary processes. Recent advances in the molecular biology of plants, particularly in the area of large-scale genomics [], are revealing how enzymes of natural product biosynthesis arise through mutation and gene duplication, leading to the continued elaboration of new chemical structures that will be selected for if they impart an adaptive advantage on the plant []. Many of these compounds act as chemical cues for plants during their on-going interactions with physical and biotic factors in their environments. In addition, plant natural products have positive and negative impacts on human and animal health and nutrition. These diverse roles in plant and animal physiology provide scope for molecular approaches to crop improvement that are based upon the manipulation of natural product profiles.


Help essay romeo juliet » Phenylpropanoid biosynthesis …

Read "Metabolic engineering: prospects for crop improvement through the genetic manipulation of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and defense responses — …