Avian Flu Diary: The Return Of The Hygiene Hypothesis

Some examples of reportable accidents or incidents include: deaths, accidents or incidents of a serious nature, injuries of unknown origin, suspected abuse or neglect, or unusual situations (e.g., a fire, even if no one was hurt).

One criticism of the hygiene hypothesis isthat it does not take into account genetic factors.

1. Different Approaches to the Issue of Human Religiousness. The most traditional approach to the problem was developed by the representatives of the "evolutionary school". They assumed that no form of religiousness could have existed in the earliest stages of human evolution and that the idea of religion must have emerged later, as history evolved. In particular, Lubbock (1834-1913) suggested the following phases: atheism, fetishism (or theriomorphism), the cult of nature (or totemism), shamanism, and idolism (or anthropomorphism), with the idea of being advanced only afterwards. E. Burnett Tylor (1832-1917) took inspiration from the evolutionary conception, too. He suggested that the religious sense might have originated from animism to develop into fetishism, then idolism, and polytheism to evolve into monotheism. Scholars like Morgan (1818-1881) and, after him, Sir James Frazer (1854-1941) agreed with the evolutionary approach. A scheme resounding with A. Comte's (1798-1857) considers magic as the earliest expression of the human spirit, which was later replaced by religion and, finally, by science.


The hygiene hypothesis links increased rates of allergies ..

One criticism of the hygiene hypothesis isthat it does not take into account genetic factors.

Some of the approaches mentioned above deal with the emergence of religiousness exclusively on the basis of comparisons and inferences, which might be influenced by diverse ideologies. Contrariwise, the phenomenological and hermeneutical methods appear to be freer and even more proper, although they are not based on fossil data. Furthermore, it is possible to develop an approach on the basis of the elements provided by paleoanthropology and prehistory; however incomplete it may sound, it appears to be the most suitable method available so far. Along this line of though, a mention goes to the contributions of Breuil, Bergounioux, Nougier, Muller-Karpe, Boné, Blanc, and Leroi-Gourhan. Ethnologist Paul Schebesta did not leave prehistory aside even though he had applied a historical method. It is through a global approach that paleoanthropology will be able to offer its contribution to the studies on the emergence of sacredness, namely of the manifestations of homo religiosus in the long Paleolithic periods.


11.03.2010 · Summary

In this regards, John Paul II stated that "from the viewpoint of the doctrine of the faith, there are no difficulties in explaining the origin of man in regard to the body, by means of the theory of evolution [...]; it is possible that the human body, following the order impressed by the Creator on the energies of life, could have been gradually prepared in the forms of antecedent living beings. However, the human soul, on which man's humanity definitively depends, cannot emerge from matter, since the soul is of a spiritual nature" (). The existence of discontinuity, of "an ontological difference" between human beings and animals is also stated by the lready quoted Message of John Paul II to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences dated October, 22, 1996. The human being can be considered the result of biological evolution as well as the fruit of a specific, creative act of God. Human beings must be considered God's creatures both for their bodily condition, which they share with the other living creatures, and for their spirituality, which is their own peculiar character.

What Does Gut Bacteria Have to Do with Asthma?

"Hominization" is believed to imply a similar process, namely a specific intervention of God in a living being, whom He wanted, prepared and oriented to the origination of a truly human life, through the action of secondary causes. It is as if animals had reached such a "critical state" that a change was needed, and a new being was originated from them (see Nicolas, 1973). In this line of thought, hominization must have occurred the moment a brain organization able to support reflex psychism and thus the appearance of human life had been reached thanks to biological mutations. If the process of evolution is to be considered as a single, all-embracing divine action creating all forms of nature to subordinate them to their own laws and properties, then the action by which God creates the human soul and breaths the breath of life into the first human being should be considered as the culmination of all the process, whose sense is not so much clarified by an inevitable determinism, but by God's specific project.