SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a method for synthesis of high-molecular alcohol with an even number of carbon atoms equal to 4 or more, involving bringing ethanol into contact with calcium phosphate for 0.6 seconds or more at 150°-450°C. The invention also relates to a method for synthesis of 1-butanol with selectivity equal to 70.3% or more, involving bringing ethanol into contact with calcium phosphate for 0.6 seconds or more at 200°C or higher but lower than 350°C, wherein calcium sulphate does not have a metallic carrier. As a rule, calcium phosphate is hydroxyapatite.
 the Reaction for the synthesis of high molecular weight alcohols from ethanol is exothermic. Therefore, if the goal is to improve the performance of high-molecular alcohols, becomes noticeable increase in the temperature inside the reaction the tower, due to the heat of reaction. In the result, there arise problems such as a decrease in the selectivity of high molecular weight alcohols due to the occurrence of other reactions, including the reaction of decomposition of ethanol, deactivation of the catalyst caused by the temperature rise of the catalyst and reduction of service life of the reactors. Therefore, when the synthesis reaction of high molecular weight alcohols from ethanol from the point of view of industrial usefulness of a more appropriate goal is high selectivity, and high productivity. However, this restriction is not imposed if the reaction tower type heat removal system response.
Direct Synthesis of n-Butanol from Ethanol over …
 On the basis of the ratio of the number of synthesized high-molecular alcohols believe that the reaction of synthesis of high molecular weight alcohols from ethanol in the presence of catalysts based on phosphate cal the Oia are sequential reactions of ethanol. So, I think from ethanol, having 2 carbon atoms, are synthesized high molecular weight alcohols having an even number of carbon atoms, such as butanol, having 4 carbon atoms, hexanol having 6 carbon atoms, octanol, having 8 carbon atoms, and decanol having 10 carbon atoms. Provided that the above-mentioned high-molecular alcohols are synthesized by sequential reactions of ethanol, the above reaction (3)to(5) can be written as the following equations (6)-(8)
Aluminium (EHC 194, 1997) - INCHEM
 in Addition, in the case of the method of oxosynthesis you must use a deadly carbon monoxide as a raw material in addition to propylene, and the method is a complex reaction under high pressure, which is a factor of increasing the cost of production. Moreover, by using the method of oxosynthesis, for example, in the case of reactions for the synthesis of butanol, 1 mol of butanol has a 2 mol of carbon dioxide, representing a substance that causes the greenhouse effect as a by-product. Thus, this method is preferably the m from the point of view of environmental protection.
Method for synthesis of high-molecular alcohols
Moreover, it has been found ...The conversion of ethanol to 1-butanol under hydrothermal conditions is carried out in the presence of commercial cobalt powder, which will help lower the cost of producing 1-butanol from ethanol in the future.
Biobutanol Production from Biomass | SpringerLink
 [Example 4] evaluation of the reaction temperature and the selectivity to 1-butanol Experience in the ethanol conversion was performed using hydroxyapatite catalyst at a concentration of ethanol of 8.1%, the time of contact 1, 0 second. For comparison, the experiment was carried out on converse the ethanol when replacing only time contacting 0.3 seconds. The results of the experiment shown in figure 4.
Lipid chemistry - Guerbet Compounds - Results Direct
The mechanism and kinetics for ethanol coupling to -butanol over hydroxyapatite (HAP) were investigated at 573–613 K. titration experiments show that the active sites for acetaldehyde and butanol formation are different. In combination with FTIR studies, it was found that ethanol dehydrogenation is catalyzed by Ca–O sites, whereas condensation of acetaldehyde is catalyzed by CaO/PO43– pairs. Measurements of the reaction kinetics at various ethanol (3.5–9.4 kPa) and acetaldehyde (0.055–0.12 kPa) partial pressures reveal that direct condensation involving two ethanol molecules does not play a significant role in butanol formation; instead, -butanol is formed via a Guerbet pathway. At a constant acetaldehyde pressure, enolate formation is rate-limiting, and ethanol inhibits acetaldehyde condensation rates by competitive adsorption. A model of the reaction kinetics consistent with all experimental observations is developed.