Lab 5: DNA , Protein Synthesis, and Genetic Mutation …

These relationships are often called the rules of Watson-Crick base pairing, named after the two scientists who discovered their structural basis.
Code for various traits or features in an organism by coding for proteins that have specific functions.
LaFreda J Howard
October 8, 2014
Lab 5: DNA , Protein Synthesis, and Genetic Mutation
RNA-ribonucleic acid, a nucleic acid present in all living cells.

Chromosomes contain specific locations called genes.There are 4 main types of gene mutations:1.

This shows the normal order of the bases for one of the strands in the area highlighted in the DNA molecule. Only one of the strands of DNA is involved in protein synthesis. A change from the normal order of bases leads to different types of gene mutation.

Protein Synthesis: Decoding DNA and Mutations – Easy …

The diagram above shows the difference in the synthesis of in normal DNA and abnormal DNA. The top strand shows the normal DNA, mRNA and amino acid sequences. A single substitution mutation has changed the base sequence in the DNA. The base sequence on the mRNA produced by the DNA is altered. As a result, a codon on the mRNA is altered. A different amino acid is inserted into the protein chain. The amino acid valine is inserted instead of glutamic acid, which is shown by the bottom strand of DNA. The protein is altered and no longer functions normally. These sequences result in sickle-shaped red blood cells. This blood disorder is known as sickle cell anaemia.