Anoxygenic photosynthesis: photophosphorylation in theabsenceof O2

In addition, among autotrophic procaryotes, there are three ways tofix CO2, two of which are unknown among eucaryotes, the CODH(acetyl CoA pathway) and the reverse TCA cycle.

All phenylpropanoids are derived from -coumaric acid and most from cinnamic acid.

Formation of deoxyribonucleotides
Ribonucleotide reductase catalyzes the synthesis of deoxyribonucleotide. The reductant is NADPH. Thioredoxin transfers electrons from NADPH for reduction of 2’-OH of ribose. dTMP is formed by thymidylate synthase by methylation of deoxy uridine monophosphate.


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Synthesis of purine ribonucleotides
IMP is synthesized from ribose 5-phosphate. There are 11 reactions in the formation of IMP. IMP is converted to GMP and AMP with the help of ATP and GTP respectively. Nucleoside monophosphates are converted to nucleoside diphosphates by base specific monophosphate kinases. Purine nucleotide synthesis is regulated by feedback inhibitor – AMP, GMP and IMP. An important regulatory factor is the availability of PRPP. Salvage pathway for purines is observed in RBC and the brain. Free purines are salvaged by APRTase and HGPRTase enzymes

Synthesis of pyrimidine ribonucleotides
Pyrimidine ring is synthesized as free pyrimidine and then it is incorporated into the nucleotide. 6 reactions are involved in the synthesis of UMP. UDP and UTP are synthesized from UMP with the help of ATP. CTP is formed by adding an amino group from glutamine. Pyrimidine can also be salvaged using PRPP. In orotic aciduria, excretion of large amount of orotic acid is observed. It results from the deficiency of either orotate phospho ribosyl transferase or OMP decarboxylase.


1.7 Glycan biosynthesis and metabolism…

2 -Raes, J., A. Rohde, J.H. Christensen, Y. Van de Peer and W. Boerjan. 2003. Genome-Wide Characterization of the Lignification Toolbox in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 133: 1051-1071

Biosynthesis, function and metabolic engineering of …

Nucleotides play a variety of important roles in all cells. They are the activated precursors of DNA and RNA. ATP, an adenine nucleotide, is a universal currency of energy in biological systems. GTP is an essential carrier of chemical energy. Adenine nucleotides are components of the coenzymes NAD+, NADP+, FMN, FAD and Coenzyme A. IMP is synthesized from ribose 5-phosphate. There are 11 reactions in the formation of IMP. Nucleoside monophosphates are converted to nucleoside diphosphates by base specific monophosphate kinases. Purine nucleotide synthesis is regulated by feedback inhibitor – AMP, GMP and IMP. Recycling of purines formed by the degradation of nucleotides is possible. Pyrimidine ring is synthesized as free pyrimidine and then it is incorporated into the nucleotide. Nucleotides of a cell undergo continuous turnover. Uric acid is the breakdown product of purine nucleotide. Gout is a disease characterized by elevated levels of uric acid in body fluids. Pyrimidines on degradation give rise to carbon dioxide, ammonia, β-alanine and β-amino isobutyrate.

Biosynthesis, function and metabolic engineering of ..

Thus, the formation of cinnamic acid from phenylalanine by the enzyme phenylalanine ammonia-lyase is referred to as the branch-point between primary metabolism (Shikimate) and secondary metabolism (phenylpropanoids)

Fatty Acid Bio Synthesis | Biosynthesis | Metabolism

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