Mediators of all types draw upon two broad classes of tactics: general tactics and contingent tactics. General tactics are kinds of interventions that mediators use in almost all conflicts. They include tactics for entering the dispute, analyzing the conflict, planning the mediation, identifying parties' interests, facilitating parties' negotiations and helping them generate proposals, drafting agreements and developing implementation plans. A key mediator activity is to identify the causes of the conflict, and to build a hypothesis as to how the conflict might be resolved. Contingent tactics are those used to handle the special problems which can arise during negotiations. Contingent tactics may be used to address such problems as value clashes, power imbalances, destructive patterns of interaction, communication problems, strong emotions, misinformation and differing analyses.
Here we complete the Bayesian alternative to frequentist mediation analysis by specifying a default Bayesian hypothesis test based on the Jeffreys-Zellner-Siow approach.
[Hypothesis of mediation pathology in surgery (4)]
If all four of these steps are met, then the data are consistent with the hypothesis that variable M completely mediates the X-Y relationship, and if the first three steps are met but the Step 4 is not, then partial mediation is indicated. Meeting these steps does not, however, conclusively establish that mediation has occurred because there are other (perhaps less plausible) models that are consistent with the data. Some of these models are considered later in the Specification Error section.
Beyond Baron and Kenny: Statistical Mediation Analysis …
In Dutton's 2013 criticism of one mechanism proposed to account for this relationship (the Cultural Mediation Hypothesis; CMH), it was argued that Openness to Experience and Agreeableness might better account for the positive association between political leftism and IQ than effortful control and cultural mediators.
Guns, Testosterone, and AggressionPsychological …
Here we complete the Bayesian alternative to frequentist mediation analysis by specifying a default Bayesian hypothesis test based on the Jeffreys–Zellner–Siow approach.
PubMed/NCBI - National Center for Biotechnology …
Background: Luszcz and Bryan review research supporting three theories of age-related memory loss: the speed hypothesis, the executive function hypothesis, and the common cause hypothesis. Objective: The aim of this commentary is to extend that review by encouraging consideration of the strength (or lack thereof) of the empirical evidence supporting theories of age-related memory loss. Methods: Arguments are presented that call into the question the strength of the evidence that derives from cross-sectional analysis of individual difference sources of variance. Results: Supporting evidence for mediational hypotheses of cognitive aging (1) derives from potentially ambiguous statistical techniques; (2) is based on untested assumptions about the between and within person sources of variance; (3) is not supported by longitudinal studies, and (4) relies heavily on arguments of parsimony. Conclusions: Existing evidence is not strong enough to grant any particular theory presumptive status. We concur with Luszcz and Bryan that supplementing the now popular individual differences research designs with alternative approaches would advance theory development and testing.
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The Four Steps If the mediational model (see above) is correctly specified, the paths of c, a, b, and c' can be estimated by multiple regression, sometimes called ordinary least squares or OLS. In some cases, other methods of estimation (e.g., logistic regression, multilevel modeling, and structural equal modeling) must be used instead of multiple regression. Regardless of which data analytic method is used, the steps necessary for testing mediation are the same. This section describes the analyses required for testing mediational hypotheses [previously presented by Baron and Kenny (1986), Judd and Kenny (1981), and James and Brett (1984)].