Maternal Sensitivity Scales - Stony Brook

Physiological systems involved in the human stress response, particularly the endocrine system and the autonomic nervous system (ANS), have received attention for their potential malleability by early environmental influences and their hypothesized etiological involvement in a broad array of disease states (e.g., cardiovascular disease, asthma, metabolic syndrome) as well as emotional and cognitive well-being (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder, depression) [1–3] .Maternal caregiving quality has been identified as a robust programming agent of child stress response systems in early life, with sensitive maternal behaviors, including accurate reading of the child's signals and contingent, timely, emotionally supportive responding, linked to more optimal stress responding, and insensitive behaviors, including inaccurate interpretation of the child's needs and withdrawn, intrusive, and hostile behaviors, linked to maladaptive stress responding throughout life [4,5] .

Maternal sensitivity and the empathic brain: Influences …

Physiological systems involved in the human stress response, particularly the endocrine system and the autonomic nervous system (ANS), have received attention for their potential malleability by early environmental influences and their hypothesized etiological involvement in a broad array of disease states (e.g., cardiovascular disease, asthma, metabolic syndrome) as well as emotional and cognitive well-being (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder, depression) [1–3] .Maternal caregiving quality has been identified as a robust programming agent of child stress response systems in early life, with sensitive maternal behaviors, including accurate reading of the child's signals and contingent, timely, emotionally supportive responding, linked to more optimal stress responding, and insensitive behaviors, including inaccurate interpretation of the child's needs and withdrawn, intrusive, and hostile behaviors, linked to maladaptive stress responding throughout life [4,5] .


Infant Temperament and Maternal Sensitivity as …

Toxoplasma attacks the central nervous system with adverse affect in brain neuro-structural development and pathological, as well as psycho-behavioral alteration, leading to mental retardation (, , ). More recently, maternal exposure or latentToxoplasma infection has been linked to a potential increased risk for autism and schizophrenic episodes and this hypothesis has received a great deal of scientific and media coverage (). Toxoplasma can alter brain dopamine (, ). In a longitudinal trial, women with chronic toxoplasmosis had a high risk of self-harm and accidents (). Another cross-sectional study indicated that Toxoplasma seropositive individuals had elevated risk of nonfatal suicidal violence ().


Differential susceptibility hypothesis - Wikipedia

N2 - Background: This study examines the differential susceptibility hypothesis as it pertains to relations between infant temperament, parenting, and behavior problems in first grade. Method: Data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care were used in a series of hierarchical regression analyses focused on interactions between three aspects of parenting (harshness, sensitivity, productive activity) and temperament as they affect teacher-reported externalizing behavior in first grade. Step #1 included family income-to-needs, maternal education, gender, life events, and amount of child care as control variables, plus infant temperament and the three parenting variables. Step #2 included a single interaction term, the interaction between one of the key parenting variables and child temperament. Results: Results showed stronger relations between maternal sensitivity and behavior problems for children with difficult temperaments. Likewise, relations between opportunities for productivity and behavior problems were stronger for children with difficult temperaments. Trends were in the same direction for harsh parenting but did not quite reach statistical significance. Conclusions: Having access to experiences that promote coping and build self-regulatory capacities seems particularly valuable for children with difficult temperaments.

The differential susceptibility hypothesis proposed by ..

A macrolide antibiotic, spiramycin is fairly safe and acts on Toxoplasma by inhibiting protein synthesis demonstrated in vitro and in murine model for toxoplasmosis. It is exclusively used to prevent maternal-fetal transmission of organisms. However spiramycin monotherapy is less effective than pyrimethamine or sulfadiazine. Spiramycin is primarily used in pregnant women to preventToxoplasma fetal maternal transmission in those with active or acquired Toxoplasma infection in early gestation period (≤18 weeks). It is mainly to prevent transmission of infection and not effective after transplacental transmission of organisms (). Spiramycin is used broadly in Europe (). Spiramycin has no teratogenic effect and is well-tolerated to be administered for several months.