The answer they come up with isthis:

Many epistemologists would agree that this conjunction is indeedabominable because it blatantly violates the basic and extremelyplausible intuition that you can't know you have hands without knowingthat you are not a BIV.[]

The tendency of society is toward stability,harmony, or equilibrium, in other words toward balance.

According to foundationalism, our justified beliefs are structured likea building: they are divided into a foundation and a superstructure,the latter resting upon the former. Beliefs belonging to the foundationare basic. Beliefs belonging to the superstructure arenonbasic and receive justification from the justified beliefsin the foundation.[]

This is accomplished through the unequaldistribution of rewards.

(Theyassume it is beneficial then try to explain how it must be beneficial.)

How is the term ‘justification’ used in ordinarylanguage? Here is an example: Tom asked Martha a question, and Martharesponded with a lie. Was she justified in lying? Jane thinks she was,for Tom's question was an inappropriate one, the answer to which wasnone of Tom's business. What might Jane mean when she thinks thatMartha was justified in responding with a lie? A natural answer isthis: She means that Martha was under no obligation to refrainfrom lying. Due the inappropriateness of Tom's question, it wasn'tMartha's duty to tell the truth. This understanding ofjustification, commonly labeled deontological, may be definedas follows: S is justified in doing x if and only ifS is not obliged to refrain from doing x.[]

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Why think that justification is internal? One argument for theinternality of justification goes as follows: "Justification isdeontological: it is a matter of duty-fulfillment. But duty-fulfillmentis internal. Therefore, justification is internal." Another argumentappeals to the brain-in-the-vat scenario we considered above: "Tim*'sbelief that he has hands is justified in the way that Tim's isjustifed. Tim* is internally the same as Tim and externally quitedifferent. Therefore, internal factors are what justify beliefs."Finally, since justification resulting from the possession of evidenceis internal justification, internalism can be supported by way ofmaking a case for evidentialism. What, then, can be said in support ofevidentialism? Evidentialists would appeal to cases in which a beliefis reliably formed but not accompanied by any experiences that wouldqualify as evidence. They would say that it's not plausible to claimthat, in cases like that, the subject's belief is justified. Hence suchcases show, according to evidentialists, that a belief can't bejustified unless it's supported by evidence.[]

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The example of Tim and Tim* may serve as well to illustrate afurther way in which we may conceive of the difference betweeninternalism and externalism. Some internalists take the followingprinciple to be characteristic of the internalist point of view:

The CRMJ Master's Degree requires either: A.

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Thesis or non-thesis masters in engineering?

Unless something very strange is going on, (B) is an example of ajustified belief. DB tells us that (B) is basic if and only if it doesnot owe its justification to any other beliefs of yours. So if (B) isindeed basic, there might be some item or other to which (B) owes itsjustification, but that item would not be another belief of yours. Wecall this kind of basicality ‘doxastic’ because it makesbasicality a function of how your doxastic system (your belief system)is structured.