What happens during protein synthesis

is the beginning of protein synthesis and involves assembly of the ribosome, the tRNA that recognizes the start codon, and the mRNA molecule itself, as well as other accessory proteins.

Protein synthesis is accomplished through a process called translation

plays a huge role in protein synthesis and translation. Its job is to translate the message within the nucleotide sequence of mRNA to a specific sequence. These sequences are joined together to form a protein. Transfer RNA is shaped like a clover leaf with three loops. It contains an amino acid attachment site on one end and a special section in the middle loop called the anticodon site. The anticodon recognizes a specific area on a mRNA called a .


Translation or Protein Synthesis

Ribosomes are responsible for translating the information in messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNAs) to synthesise proteins that the cell needs to carry out its function. Protein synthesis begins with the 30S ribosomal subunit recruiting a mRNA with the help of an initiator transfer RNA and three initiation factors. Successful recruitment of the mRNA results in the formation of the 30S pre‐initiation complex, which is followed by the joining of the 50S ribosomal subunit to form the 70S ribosome. Recent studies indicate the order in which the initiation factors bind and promote the steps in initiation complex formation. The formation of the pre‐initiation/initiation complex is often the rate‐limiting step during the process of translation, as it is influenced by a number of translational regulatory mechanisms. As a result, the process of initiation can play a significant role in gene expression.


Translation elongation is second in protein synthesis steps

Antoun A, Pavlov MY, Lovmar M and Ehrenberg M (2006a) How initiation factors tune the rate of initiation of protein synthesis in bacteria. EMBO Journal 25: 2539–2550.

Translation: Making Protein Synthesis Possible.

Antoun A, Pavlov MY, Lovmar M and Ehrenberg M (2006b) How initiation factors maximize the accuracy of tRNA selection in initiation of bacterial protein synthesis. Molecular Cell 23: 183–193.

If you get lost during the protein synthesis ..

Ribosome: The ribosome’s job is to hold everything in place, as well as form the bonds between amino acids. All cells have ribosomes. Ribosomes are made of RNA and associated proteins, with a small subunit and a large subunit coming together during translation to catalyze protein synthesis.

in mRNA during the translation phase of protein synthesis

Protein synthesis is accomplished through a process called translation. After is transcribed into a messenger (mRNA) molecule during , the mRNA must be translated to produce a . In translation, mRNA along with (tRNA) and work together to produce proteins.

Animation of Protein Synthesis (Translation) in Prokaryotes

Binding site of evernimicin on the large ribosomal subunit. (a) Ribosomal components of the large subunit (grey) involved in evernimicin binding and resistance: Ribosomal protein L16 (green) and 23S rRNA helices 89 (blue) and 91 (pink). Positions of ribosomal proteins L1, L11, the central protuberance (CP) and peptidyltransferase centre (PTC; red sphere) are indicated for reference. (b) Ribosomal components of the large subunit (grey) involved in evernimicin binding and resistance: Resistance mutations at residues (green spheres) in ribosomal protein L16 confer low‐level evernimicin resistance, whereas higher resistance is conferred by mutations at nucleotides (purple) in H89 and H91. Nucleotides that are protected from chemical modification in the presence of evernimicin are shown in light magenta (dark magenta indicates both protection and resistance positions). The noncanonical hydrogen bond between C2475 (H89) and G2529 (H91) is indicated with dashed lines, and the red sphere indicates the location of the PTC.