The tradition was taken up by the American linguist and anthropologist Edward Sapir (1884-1939) and his pupil Benjamin Lee Whorf (1897-1941), and resulted in a view about the relation between language and thought which was widely influential in the middle decades of this century....
The data that are actually used toward this end in Generative Grammaranalyses are almost always disembodied sentences that analysts havemade up ad hoc, … rather than utterances produced by real peoplein real discourse situations… In diametric opposition to thesemethodological assumptions and choices, cognitive-functional linguiststake as their object of study all aspects of natural languageunderstanding and use… They (especially the more functionallyoriented analysts) take as an important part of their data notdisembodied sentences derived from introspection, but ratherutterances or other longer sequences from naturally occurringdiscourse. (Tomasello 1998: xiii)
Related to linguistic relativity is ..
The group level of identity could be summarized by the following statement: "All individuals are, in some respects, like some other individuals." Some of the group-level factors are fixed and unchanging, e.g., race, gender, ability, age, while others are relatively non-fixed, e.g., education, socioeconomic status, marital status, geographic location.
Ancient and contemporary developments of Linguistic Relativism, ..
There is no general or global ineffability problem. There is, though,a peculiar aspect of strong Whorfian claims, giving them a local analog of ineffability: the content of such a claim cannot be expressed in any language it is true of. This does not make the claims self-undermining (as with the standard objections to relativism); it doesn't even mean that they are untestable. They are somewhat anomalous, but nothing follows concerning the speakers of the language in question (except that they cannot state the hypothesis using the basic vocabulary and grammar that they ordinarily use).
linguistic relativity | Subject (Grammar) | Second Language
Genuine hypotheses about the effects of language on thought will always have a duality: there will be a linguistic part and a non-linguistic one. The linguistic part will involve a claim that some feature is present in one language but absent in another.
Cultural Linguistics and linguistic relativity - ScienceDirect
For example, the supposedly deep linguistic universal of ‘recursion’ (Hauser et al. 2002) is surely quite independent of whether the inventory of colour-name lexemes in your language influences the speed with which you can discriminate betweencolor chips. And conversely, universal tendencies in color naming across languages (Kay and Regier 2006) do not show that color-naming differences among languages are without effect on categorical perception (Thierry et al. 2009).
Linguistic Relativity - Anthropology - Oxford Bibliographies
Li and Gleitman then claim (p. 266) that such (Whorfian) views “have diminished considerably in academic favor” in part because of “the universalist position of Chomskian linguistics,with its potential for explaining the striking similarity of languagelearning in children all over the world.” But there is no clearconflict or even a conceptual connection between Whorf's views about language placing limits on developmental plasticity, and Chomsky's thesis of an innate universal architecture for syntax. In short, there is no reason why Chomsky's I-languages could not be innately constrained, but (once acquired) cognitively and developmentally constraining.