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While Libération [which published this debate] must doubtless be classed among the "renegades," Alain Badiou agreed to a dialogue with [its editor] Laurent Joffrin. For his part, Joffrin takes up a position at the heart of the political game as a commentator and defender of social democracy and reformism. Their exchanges over Eloge de la politique were lively and hard-fought. They exposed the gulf that separates the man who holds firm to the "communist hypothesis" founded on popular insurrection — even if he admits not knowing how it would develop — and the man who is sure to advance step by step.

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LJ: But communism failed in its very essence, not just in its ways and means. You say that these experiences failed because they were not pushed far enough. But it was precisely when they went furthest that the failure was the clearest. I will take the example of the Great Leap Forward in China at the end of the 1950s. There, collective appropriation went as far as it could possibly have done. They collectivised not only the land but also the tools, the fertiliser, the peasants’ everyday lives — they had their meals in collective canteens and had to hand in their own tools. The result: within a year, agricultural production had collapsed. And since the Chinese countryside had even beforehand been at the threshold of subsistence, this extreme communism created an appalling famine. It is recognised that this collectivisation resulted in a catastrophe, between 10 and 30 million dead. And we saw this same process everywhere.


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Marsh's theory has an important contact with the 2SH, namely, the postulation of a Q-like hypothetical sayings source, Beth, that is largely responsible for the double tradition. Since Marsh offered a Griesbach-like explanation for the origin of Mark as a conflation of Aleph 1 (proto-Matthew) and Aleph 2 (proto-Luke), however, Marsh should not deserve credit as the originator of the 2SH. A modern variant of Marsh's theory is P. Rolland's Hypothesis.


The null hypothesis is an hypothesis about a population parameter

The synoptic theory propounded by Hebert Marsh () was very mechanical, proposing three main hypothetical Hebrew documents, denominated with Hebrew letters. These documents comprised the Matthew-Mark agreements against Luke (Aleph1, labeled "pMt"), the Mark-Luke agreements against Matthew (Aleph2, labeled "pLk"), and the Matthew-Luke agreements against Mark (Beth, labeled "Q"), respectively. The first two of these documents themselves were derived from a fourth hypothetical document Aleph (labeled "G"), which contained the Matthew-Mark-Luke triple agreements. The other source, Beth, was a sayings collection that was similar to Q.

Giant-impact hypothesis - Wikipedia

AB: I am not an advocate of theirs. Quite the contrary, I say that if in order to save the hypothesis of a just, collective appropriation of wealth, we must recognise the failures — failures which are inevitable in the first decades of an experience of such vast significance — and invent new solutions. But for Laurent Joffrin and the dominant pro-capitalist opinion, everything is settled already, and this form of justice is criminal.

Writing a Hypothesis for Your Science Fair Project

Schleiermacher operated within the perimeters of the Fragmentary Hypothesis, which held that the synoptic gospels were composed from a multiplicity of shorter documents. Interpreting the term logia (logia) as referring to a sayings collection in the testimony of (c. 125), Schleiermacher argued that the "logia" was one of the documents that were available to the evangelists (; see generally ). In fact, "logia" was how scholars originally called Q until the turn of the 20th century, when doubts about the identification with Papias's reference began to surface.

The Scientific Method - Science Made Simple

For example, G. Ch. Storr, one of Griesbach's contemporary challengers, arguing that Mark, not Matthew, was the earliest, and that both Matthew and Luke used Mark (; see generally : 7, : 51). For the double tradition, however, Storr was undecided about whether Luke used Matthew, virtually anticipating the Farrer Hypothesis, or whether Matthew's translator used Luke.