The final deliverable of the Analyze phase is to summarize all the findings from Statistical validation or Process Value Analysis (& VSM) in a 2×2 matrix called as Control-Impact Matrix. It is important to ensure that the project doesn’t end up as an academic exercise or research study. Hence, the Lean Six Sigma team needs to identify root causes which have high impact, and well within the control of the team. This is done through a team discussion with the involvement of the project sponsor.
African Americans and Blacks have low participation rates in clinical trials and reduced access to aggressive medical therapies. Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a high-risk but potentially curative therapy for sickle cell disease (SCD), a disorder predominantly seen in African Americans. We conducted focus groups to better understand participation barriers to HCT clinical trials for SCD. Nine focus groups of youth with SCD (n=10) and parents (n=41) were conducted at 3 sites representing the Midwest, South Atlantic, and West South Central US. Main barriers to clinical trial participation included gaps in knowledge about SCD, limited access to SCD/HCT trial information, and mistrust of medical professionals. For education about SCD/HCT trials, participants highly preferred one-on-one interactions with medical professionals and electronic media as a supplement. Providers can engage with sickle cell camps to provide information on SCD/HCT clinical trials to youth and local health fairs for parents/families. Youth reported learning about SCD through computer games; investigators may find this medium useful for clinical trial/HCT education. African Americans affected by SCD face unique barriers to clinical trial participation and have unmet HCT clinical studies education needs. Greater recognition of these barriers will allow targeted interventions in this community to increase their access to HCT.
used to validate a research study
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a brief, clinically relevant, multidimensional interview to assess pain burden among children and adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD). The Sickle Cell Disease Pain Burden Interview-Youth (SCPBI-Y) was developed using a panel of experts, patients, and caregivers. Validation was undertaken with children and youth with SCD, ages 7 to 21 years (N = 129), recruited from 4 urban children's hospitals. Participants were recruited from inpatient (n = 62) and outpatient (n = 67) settings. The SCPBI-Y demonstrated strong internal consistency reliability, cross-informant concordance (child-caregiver), and test-retest reliability (outpatient setting). Moderate construct validity was found with validated measures of functional ability, pain, and quality of life. The SCPBI-Y demonstrated construct validity using a contrasted group approach between youth in inpatient versus outpatient settings and by severity of SCD symptoms, suggesting that youth in inpatient settings and with higher disease severity exhibited greater pain burden. Discriminant validity was found between SCPBI-Y and mood. Our preliminary findings suggest that the SCPBI-Y is a valid and reliable multidimensional interview that can be used in different clinical settings to evaluate pain burden among children and adolescents with SCD. PERSPECTIVE: Multifaceted pain assessments are salient in providing optimal care to children and adolescents with SCD; however, current evaluations are lengthy and cumbersome to administer clinically. The current study introduces and validates a brief, clinically useful multidimensional interview to evaluate pain burden specific to youth with SCD.
Sometimes a study is designed ..
Participants were randomly allocated to standard care or reminders. Two-way SMS reminders were automated using Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) for hydroxyurea, fluticasone, budesonide and montelukast. Adherence was measured using the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8 (MMAS-8). Asthma control was assessed using the Childhood and Adult-Asthma Control Tests (ACT). Participants were enrolled 28 to 60 days with a common termination date.
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Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) has well-known tempering effects on the symptoms of sickle cell disease and its levels vary among patients with different haplotypes of the sickle hemoglobin gene. Compared with sickle cell anemia haplotypes found in patients of African descent, HbF levels in Saudi and Indian patients with the Arab-Indian (AI) haplotype exceed that in any other haplotype by nearly two-fold. Genetic association studies have identified some loci associated with high HbF in the AI haplotype but these observations require functional confirmation. Saudi patients with the Benin haplotype have HbF levels almost twice as high as African patients with this haplotype but this difference is unexplained. Hydroxyurea is still the only FDA approved drug for HbF induction in sickle cell disease. While most patients treated with hydroxyurea have an increase in HbF and some clinical improvement, 10 to 20% of adults show little response to this agent. We review the genetic basis of HbF regulation focusing on sickle cell anemia in Saudi Arabia and discuss new drugs that can induce increased levels of HbF. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.