Acardia (French : acardia) Congenital absence of the heart.

Human gene therapy (French : thérapie génique humaine) Insertion of normal DNA directly into cells to correct a genetic defect.

Acentric (French : acentrique) Absence of centromere in a chromosome structure.

Endonuclease (French : endonucléase) An enzyme that cleaves its nucleic acid substrate at internal sites in the nucleotide sequence.

Agenesis (French : agénésie) Absence of an organ or structure.

Adenine (French : adénine) A nitrogenous base, one member of the base pair A-T, adenine- thymine.

By the late 1950s a series of lac mutations had been obtained: most of these mutations mapped to a single locus of the chromosome, defining the region now known as the lac locus, which contains three structural genes, , and , coding for , and (see later).

Cephalometry (French : céphalométrie) Measurement of the head.

Complementary DNA, cDNA (French : ADN complémentaire, ADNc) DNA that is synthesized from a messenger RNA template; the single-stranded form is often used as a probe in physical mapping.

Chromosome set (French : haplome) See .

Codominant (French : codominant) Two alleles that are expressed simultaneously in the heterozygote state. Example the ABO blood group.

Cis control (French : contrôle en cis).

Complementary sequences (French : séquences complémentaires) Nucleic acid base sequences that can form a double- stranded structure by matching base pairs; the complementary sequence to G- T- A- C is C- A- T- G.

Clinodactyly (French : clinodactylie) Incurved finger.

Complementation (French : complementation) Complementary effect of a double mutation on different genes. The two mutant genes may reconstitute a normal phenotype. Xeroderma pigmentosum is an example of complementation.

Clone bank (French : banque de clones) See .

Conditional mutation (French : mutation conditionnelle) Mutation expressed only under certain conditions. Lethal mutations exist in a cell but in the homozygote state under conditional forms, like for instance if they are expressed at certain temperatures.

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Conjugation, mating (French : conjugaison) Natural transfer of plasmidic or chromosomal DNA from a bacterial cell to another via a cytoplasmic bridge.