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A hypothesis test in statistics is like a proof in mathematics, or an essay in English composition. It is an explanation of a situation, not just an answer. Although the result of the hypothesis test is itself interesting (just as the conclusion of a mathematical theorem, or the main point of an essay), the "answer" is not the focus of the process. Rather, we are interested in the argument that proves the result.

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Part of the hypothesis for skyrocketing oxygen levels during the late Proterozoic was that high carbon dioxide levels, combined with a continent that had been ground down by glaciers, and the resumption of the hydrological cycle, which would have vanished during the Snowball Earth events, would have created conditions of dramatically increased erosion, which would have buried carbon (the cap carbonates are part of that evidence) and thus helped oxygenate the atmosphere. Evidence for that increased erosion also came in the form of strontium isotope analysis. Two of strontium’s stable isotopes are . Earth’s mantle is enriched in strontium-86 while the crust is enriched in strontium-87, so basalts exposed to the ocean in the oceanic volcanic ridges are enriched in strontium-86 while continental rocks are enriched in strontium-87. If erosion is higher than normal, then ocean sediments will be enriched in strontium-87, which analysis of Ediacaran sediments confirmed. That evidence, combined with carbon isotope ratios, provides a strong indication of high erosion and high carbon burial, which would have increased atmospheric oxygen levels. There is other evidence of increasing atmospheric oxygen content during the late Proterozoic, such as an increase in rare earth elements in Ediacaran sediments. Although there is still plenty of controversy, today's consensus is that the Cryogenian is when , where they have largely stayed, although as this essay will later discuss, oxygen levels have varied widely since the late Proterozoic (from perhaps only a few percent to 35%).

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Studies have shown that humans and chimpanzees have the same basal metabolism, so the first possibility is considered very unlikely in our ancestors, although large brains in general . The subject of reducing energy output has an intriguing hypothesis: bipedal motion allowed humans to move by using less energy than our pre-bipedal ancestors. Human bipedal locomotion requires only a quarter of the energy that chimpanzee locomotion does, and chimps use about a quarter of their metabolism walking, although whether this was a key evolutionary event is controversial. Even though protohumans would have taken advantage of bipedal walking to range farther than chimps (humans can average 11 miles a day, while chimps can only achieve six), thereby using a relatively larger proportion of their energy on locomotion; bipedal locomotion energy savings alone might largely account for the growing brain’s energy needs. was developed to account for the required energy, which proposed that energy to fuel the growing brain came from reducing digestion costs, which was initially provided by eating more meat.

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For this essay’s purposes, the most important ecological understanding is that the Sun provides all of earthly life’s energy, either (all except nuclear-powered electric lights driving photosynthesis in greenhouses, as that energy came from dead stars). Today’s hydrocarbon energy that powers our industrial world comes from captured sunlight. Exciting electrons with photon energy, then stripping off electrons and protons and using their electric potential to power biochemical reactions, is what makes Earth’s ecosystems possible. Too little energy, and reactions will not happen (such as ice ages, enzyme poisoning, the darkness of night, food shortages, and lack of key nutrients that support biological reactions), and too much (such as , ionizing radiation, temperatures too high for enzyme activity), and life is damaged or destroyed. The journey of life on Earth has primarily been about adapting to varying energy conditions and finding levels where life can survive. For the many hypotheses about those ancient events and what really happened, the answers are always primarily in energy terms, such as how it was obtained, how it was preserved, and how it was used. For life scientists, that is always the framework, and they devote themselves to discovering how the energy game was played.

How to Write a Hypothesis Statement - SolidEssay

That was written in 1966, but about 40 years later the situation is even more bleak since it is now obvious that

The documentary hypothesis has a number of problems - some of which, the original documentary theoryists could not have been aware of in the century in which they wrote; Kenneth Collins points one out in his essay, (find link to the full essay lower on this page),