The acidity was found to arise from the opening of their stomata at night to take in CO2 and fix it into malic acid for storage in the large vacuoles of their photosynthetic cells. It could drop the pH to 4 with a malic acid concentration up to 0.3M . Then in the heat of the day, the stomata close tightly to conserve water and the malic acid is decarboxylated to release the CO2 for fixing by the Calvin cycle. PEP is used for the initial short-term carbon fixation as in the , but the entire chain of reactions occurs in the same cell rather than handing off to a separate cell as with the C4 plants. In the CAM strategy, the processes are separated temporally, the initial CO2 fixation at night, and the malic acid to Calvin cycle part taking place during the day.
The of a is the amount of biomass produced through photosynthesis per unit area and time by plants, the primary producers. Primary productivity is usually expressed in units of energy (e.g., joules m day ) or in units of dry organic matter (e.g., kg m year ). Globally, primary production amounts to 243 billion metric tons of dry plant biomass per year. The total energy by plants in a community through photosynthesis is referred to as (). Because all the energy fixed by the plant is converted into sugar, it is theoretically possible to determine a plant's energy uptake by measuring the amount of sugar produced. A proportion of the energy of gross primary productivity is used by plants in a process called . Respiration provides a plant with the energy needed for various plant physiological and morphological activities. The general equation for respiration is:
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While grass can just sit there and grow, we poor animals have to hunt down our food, which may seem a trifle unfair by comparison. But then, the grass is always greener …
9(l) Primary Productivity of Plants - Physical Geography
Algae's efficiency at pulling inorganic carbon out of the environment is dependent on growth condition which implies the presence of an inducible carbon dioxide‐concentrating mechanism in algal cells.
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The proposed mechanism for carbon dioxide acquisition in algae includes active HCO3− accumulation, Rubisco packaging in specialized structures and the presence of a carbonic anhydrase near the location of Rubisco.
Energy, photosynthesis, and Energy conversions in …
The major antenna pigments in algae include chlorophylls, phycobiliproteins and carotenoids and the variation in the composition and relative abundance of these pigments give algae their distinctive colour.
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Algae grow faster and are very efficient in absorbing and converting solar energy into chemical energy which is mainly in the form of triacylglycerols.
Photosynthesis – Plant Management in Florida Waters
C3 plants have the disadvantage that in hot dry conditions their photosynthetic efficiency suffers because of a process called . When the CO2 concentration in the drops below about 50 ppm, the catalyst that helps to fix carbon begins to fix oxygen instead. This is highly wasteful of the energy that has been collected from the light, and causes the rubisco to operate at perhaps a quarter of its maximal rate.
C3 Photosynthesis - Georgia State University
Respiration refers to the metabolism of oxygen and the release of carbon dioxide. In it is a positive term, a process vital to life. But photorespiration is an entirely negative term because it represents a severe loss to the process of using light energy in photosynthetic organisms to fix carbon for subsequent carbohydrate synthesis. By leading to the loss of up to half of the carbon that has been fixed at the expense of light energy, photorespiration undoes the work of photosynthesis.