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For example, a neuron connected to kinesthetic receptors in the elbow fires a certain number of impulses when the arm is outstretched. If the arm is at a 45-degree angle, the cell might fire 40 impulses per second. If the arm is at an angle of 60 degrees, the cell might fire 90 impulses per second.

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We have surveyed the five senses described by Aristotle: vision, audition, olfaction, gustation, and touch. All five are directed outward to receive stimuli from the outside world. Two other important senses, kinesthesis and equilibrium, involve sensitivity to events: position and motion of the body. Kinesthesis and equilibrium are senses, from the root , which means . Kinesthetic receptors detect .


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If each part of the nervous system stores memories of its own role in neural activity, this may help explain a famous series of experiments that baffled psychologists in the 1930s and 1940s. Karl Lashley, one of the world's foremost brain researchers, tried to locate the area in the brain where or were stored. He sliced or removed sections of rat brains after teaching the rats to run mazes. None of the brain injuries abolished the "maze-running habit," although Lashley tried removing tissue in almost every area that allowed the rat to remain alive. Lashley concluded that memories had to be spread all over the brain, throughout the tissue.