This dissertation argues that the Toronto and Vancouver International Film Festivals have been undervalued as showcases and in fact these hybrid public-private institutions are catalysts in the global, local and regional articulation of English-Canadian cinema culture. As a threshold to mainstream release and a non-theatrical venue, the festival operates in the gap between the production and consumption of film commodities. Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu’s model of the field of cultural production, this gap is re-conceptualized as a productive space structured by the relative positioning of stakeholders engaged in the negotiation of hierarchies of cinematic value. Festival space mediates the interests of international trade, cultural diplomacy and cinephilia, balancing a need for programming autonomy against the intervention of global Hollywood in the political economy of independent cinema. In the Canadian context, the value of national cinema is both a vexatious economic issue in that indigenous films consistently earn less than a 5% domestic box office share and a symbolic one to the extent that lacklustre theatrical performance is seen as an indication of the chronic absence of a popular national cinema. While TIFF endorses public accessibility and an industrial rationale, VIFF situates itself as a community event with a focus on providing an exhibition alternative—both of which are consecrated by urban cultural policy with the development of Bell Lightbox and the Vancouver International Film Centre. Press coverage, festival publications and policy reports provide insight into the field of forces shaping festival buzz and evolving organizational identity in the divergent historical trajectories of these events to embedding as permanent space. Despite a realignment of Canadian Feature Film Policy toward industrial objectives and performance indicators, the value chain from film festival to box office persists as a policy blind spot, reinforcing a split, rather than creative intermixture, of cultural and industrial measures of audience access. This dissertation contends that, through the creation of vibrant local film scenes that connect regional production to the international marketplace and cosmopolitan consumption, Canada’s major film festivals play a critical role as intermediaries in cinephilic, governmental and industrial struggles to define cinema’s symbolic and economic value.
The dominant historical narrative of postwar Japanese cinema, especially in the 1950s, has focused on studio directors such as Kurosawa Akira and Mizoguchi Kenji, some of whose works enjoyed international recognition at European film festivals. Literature on the history of Japanese cinema in the 1950s is thus centered on the notion of transcendental auteurs re-branding and reaffirming Japanese national cinema with universal appeals. As a corollary, subsequent studies of 1960s Japanese cinema have revolved around younger directors and their works as a defiant response to the 1950s generation. One common approach is tied to the generational sense of disillusionment after the failed protests against the renewal of the Japan-US Mutual Security Pact in 1960. New wave filmmakers – bshima Nagisa, Yoshida Yoshishige, Shinoda Masahiro, and others – are thus viewed as rebellious young directors who opposed their established mentors in the industry. The logic behind this polemic is a monolithic view that equates politics with resistance and action.
Lady macbeth diary entry essay by Hazel Wayman - issuu
This dissertation examines the institutional history of Iwanami Productions (), which evolved from a major provider of sponsored educational and PR films into a key player in the new cinemas of the 1960s in Japan. The studio that accepted state and corporate-affiliated projects also nurtured so-called "new wave" filmmakers and their works within its institutional frame. By exploring uncharted aspects of film education and the sponsored documentary in postwar Japan, this project challenges the dominant historical narrative of the cinematic new wave in Japan, often characterized by the oppositional politics of radical "rebellion" against conformist "collaboration," the binaries that still largely define the discourse on Japanese cinema of this period. Beyond the activist logic of political resistance, I argue that the root of cinematic modernism in Japan resided in institutionalized audio-visual education and the PR film industry. If the former regards cinema as a radicalized medium for , the latter envisions it as a participatory medium for the process of . And this study emphasizes the importance of the latter by highlighting the history of film education and its crucial relationship with the Japanese New Wave. On the broader level, I trace the complex relationship between the state/capitalist powers and cinema/image culture in the post-occupation period of high economic and industrial growth in Japan. By doing so, this project works towards new transnational parameters that relate the "cinematic new wave" to what constituted the cinemas of the 1960s.