The end of dinosaurs and the rise of mammals.

The deindustrialization and of the USA's economy since the energy crisis of 1973-1974 has also been class warfare by the global capitalist class against the global working class, in what has been called the "." But class warfare and other such strategies are doomed ways to maintain or enhance one's economic position, as energy is the basis for of the world’s wealth. The in the past generation, which further enrich the rich at the expense of the lower classes. If the American dollar loses its (more a question of when, rather than if), another subsidy to the American economy will disappear, which will further mark the USA's decline as an imperial power. There are , other than for people to get out of the way and stop suppressing FE and its attendant technologies, either consciously, as the , or mindlessly, as when the masses those trying to introduce FE and prevent , or unless there is immediate personal gain for doing so.

respiration in terms of energy flow, beginning reactants and end products.
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Although great mass death resulted from the end-Triassic extinction, dinosaurs emerged virtually unscathed. Why? It may have been due to their superior , which could survive the hot times and record-low oxygen levels of the end-Triassic. The mammalian lung is pretty good, too, but not nearly as efficient as the saurischian dinosaurs’ air sac system. Crocodiles have a piston-lung like mammals have, so they also have a superior respiration system. Mammals rode out the storm in their burrows while crocodile ancestors cooled in the swamps and marine reptiles cooled in the oceans. Living in burrows, swamps, and other refugia is probably how mammals, crocodiles, and birds survived the when non-avian dinosaurs did not.


, marking the beginning of the end of Classical Period in music

End of . End of . . . With  comes the .  – or do we blow Earth up?
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As with the , the molecular evidence shows that virtually all major orders of mammals existed before the end-Cretaceous extinction. The Paleocene‘s Mammalian Explosion appears to have not been a genetic event, but an ecological one; mammals quickly adapted to empty niches that non-avian dinosaurs left behind. The kinds of mammals that appeared in the Paleocene and afterward illustrate the idea that body features and size are conditioned by their environment, which includes other organisms. With the sauropods' demise, high grazers of conifers never reappeared, but many mammals developed ornithischian eating habits and many attained similar size. That phenomenon illustrates the , in which assemblages of vastly different animals can inhabit similar ecological niches. The guild concept is obvious with the many kinds of animals that formed reefs in the past; the , , , , , , , and reefs all had similarities, particularly in their shape and location, but the organisms comprising them, from reef-forming organisms to reef denizens and the apex predators patrolling them, had radical changes during the . If you squinted and blurred your vision, most of those reefs from different periods would appear strikingly similar, but when you focused, the variation in organisms could be astounding. The woodpecker guild is comprised of animals that eat insects living under tree bark. But in Madagascar, where no woodpeckers live, a , with a middle finger that acts as the woodpecker’s bill. In New Guinea, . In the Galapagos Islands, a to acquire those insects. In Australia, , but unlike the others, they have not developed a probing body part, nor do they use tools, but just rip off the bark with the brute force of their beaks.


1. What is chemosynthesis? - Top Grade Hub

Few people on Earth today have much understanding of the relationship between . Most people think that money runs the world, when it is only an accounting fiction. Money by itself is meaningless, and financial measures of economic activity can be highly misleading. I noted long ago that scientists had little respect for . that obscured the role of energy while exalting money. What a coincidence. Understanding this essay's first half will help with comprehending the last half, and the connections between energy, ecosystems, and economics should become clear.