And this is an implication ofmarket being efficient.

What conclusion can you draw from this, and how does this informationaffect which form of the market efficiency hypothesis you might adopt?

Efficient market hypothesis expect, at the margin, the net expected economicprofits is zero.

For example, news events such as surprise interest rate changes from central banks are not instantaneously taken account of in stock prices, but rather cause sustained movement of prices over periods from hours to months.


Would this invalidate the weak-formefficiency market hypothesis?

At the pub, you argue strongly for thestrong form of the efficient market hypothesis.

In its strongest form, the EMH says a market is efficient if all information relevant to the value of a share, whether or not generally available to existing or potential investors, is quickly and accurately reflected in the market price. For example, if the current market price is lower than the value justified by some piece of held information, the holders of that information will exploit the pricing anomaly by buying the shares. They will continue doing so until this excess demand for the shares has driven the price up to the level supported by their private information. At this point they will have no incentive to continue buying, so they will withdraw from the market and the price will stabilise at this new equilibrium level. This is called the of the EMH. It is the most satisfying and compelling form of EMH in a theoretical sense, but it suffers from one big drawback in practice. It is difficult to confirm empirically, as the necessary research would be unlikely to win the cooperation of the relevant section of the financial community – insider dealers.


3 The Efficient Markets Hypothesis ..

Genotype, on the other hand, is another critical factor that can affect cancer formation []. Many genotypes are known to be associated with cancers. Currently, there are no established mechanisms that can relate gene mutations to cancer formation. For example, a cancer-specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is often associated with specific cancers [], but this SNP is located in an intron of the gene. It is still unclear how intronic SNPs affect gene expression. Typically, cancer-associated genotypes work solely as biomarkers.

Efficient Markets Hypothesis: History

If a market is weak-form efficient, there is no correlation between successive prices, so that excess returns cannot consistently be achieved through the study of past price movements. This kind of study is called or analysis, because it is based on the study of past price patterns without regard to any further background information.

History of the efficient markets hypothesis ..

Promoter methylation is widely recognized as an important factor that regulates gene expression, especially in cancers [, ]. Many genes with tumor-specific methylated promoters have been identified. For example, the promoters of the PAK3, NISCH, KIF1A, and OGDHL genes are specifically methylated in several cancers, including breast, esophagus, lung, pancreas, colon, prostate, gastric, cervix, thyroid, kidney, head and neck, ovary, and bladder cancers []. Because genes with methylated promoters are believed to be suppressive, genes with tumor-specific hypermethylated promoters were assumed to be tumor suppressors. Similarly, genes with tumor-specific hypomethylated promoters were supposed to be oncogenic (i.e., expressed in tumors) and potential oncogene targets. Identification of promoter methylation in cancer genes is important in helping to find critical genes that can cause cancer formation.

History of the efficient market hypothesis.

If a market is semi-strong efficient, the current market price is the best available unbiased predictor of a fair price, having regard to all publicly available information about the risk and return of an investment. The study of public information (and not just past prices) cannot yield consistent excess returns. This is a somewhat more controversial conclusion than that of the weak-form EMH, because it means that analysis – the systematic study of companies, sectors and the economy at large – cannot produce consistently higher returns than are justified by the risks involved. Such a finding calls into question the relevance and value of a large sector of the financial services industry, namely investment research and analysis.