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Cumulative joint trauma associated with sports and/or exercise activities should take place for a total of at least 5 hours per week for a period of at least 10 years;

Four versions of the ODI areavailable in English and nine in other languages.

may be classified as either primary, when there is no obvious predisposing cause, or secondary, when the disease results from anatomic or metabolic predisposing factors. Primary affects, mainly, the weight-bearing joints. Weight-bearing joints are the lumbar spine, hips, knees and ankles. In the majority of persons with , involvement is limited to one or only a small number of joints, e.g. the hands or the spine. Persons with involvement of numerous joint regions are considered to have a variant of , called primary generalized .


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For cumulative joint trauma associated with sports and/or exercise activities to cause in a normal knee in a non-obese individual, the following criteria should be met:


The following clinical features are often associated with :

In Spondylolysis, symptoms are often absent. Defects are then discovered only incidentally on x-ray made for other purposes. In Spondylolisthesis, injury may aggravate (permanently worsen) any symptoms, but rarely does a single injury cause symptoms in a person who previously had none. Symptoms generally begin insidiously during the second or third decade as an intermittent dull ache in the lower back, present with increasing frequency during walking and standing. Later, pain may develop in the buttocks and thighs, and still later unilateral sciatica may develop.

Obesity is considered a risk factor in c

There may be no objective signs in Spondylolysis, or in first or second degree Spondylolisthesis. The finding of Spondylolysis on x-ray in an adult is likely to be incidental, and not the cause of back pain if that pain did not commence in childhood or adolescence. Tightened hamstrings are present in the majority of those who are symptomatic. Tenderness and spasms of the paravertebral muscles may be present at the level of the vertebral defect and surrounding segments. Pain may be induced and increased by certain movements.

Obesity is considered a risk factor in

For purposes, osteoarthrosis is a non-inflammatory joint disease characterized by degeneration of the articular cartilage, hypertrophy of bone at the margins, and changes in the synovial membrane. It is also known as Degenerative Arthritis, Hypertrophic Arthritis and Degenerative Joint Disease.

Obesity should be associated with a of 30 or greater;

In Spondylolisthesis with a significant slip, a step-off at the lumbosacral junction is palpable, motion of the lumbar spine is restricted, and hamstring tightness is evident on straight leg raising. As the vertebral body displaces anteriorly, the individual assumes a lordotic posture above the level of the slip to compensate for the displacement. Adults may have objective signs of nerve root compression, such as motor weakness, reflex change, or sensory deficit. These signs are seldom seen in children.