The transfer of electrons from one molecule to another is called an oxidation-reduction, or redox reaction. A molecule that loses electrons is oxidized; a molecule that gains electrons is reduced. Different molecules have different tendencies to gain or lose electrons, called the redox potential. A redox reaction between a pair of molecules with a large difference in redox potential results in a large release of free energy.
Photosynthesis Similarities Differences The Relationship Between the Processes Works Cited There are a number of similarities between these two series of reactions such as their equations, transformation of energy, exchange of gases, the Eletron Transport Chain and Chemiosmosis, and the theory of endosymbiosis.
What Are the Differences Between Animal …
The protons then move down the concentration gradient from the space between the inner and outer membranes back into the matrix. However, they can only move back across via an enzyme embedded in the inner membrane. This enzyme is called ATP synthase. The protons are transported back into the matrix through the channels of ATP synthase and as they do so they release energy. This energy is then used by ATP synthase to convert ADP into ATP. Since the electrons come from previous oxidation reactions of cell respiration and the ATP synthase catalyses the phosphorylation of ADP into ATP, this process is called oxidative phosphorylation. Chemiosmosis is necessary for oxidative phosphorylation to work.
Describe the difference between oxidation and reduction; ..
Plants during the light dependent reaction gain energy from sunlight in photosystems as a means of getting electrons from a lower energy level to a higher energy level. The source of this electron is from the photolysis of water, which also generates protons needed for chemiosmosis. The source in mitochondria is derived from co-enzymes: and . During the previous steps of respiration, especially the Krebs cycle, the reduction of plays a pivotal role as a supply of electrons and protons for the electron transport chain and producing the proton-motive force. In both plants and animals, oxygen is used as the most common final electron acceptor so that the electron transport chain can continue so that chemiosmosis and production of ATP can continue. Inhibitors such as cyanide can block the aforementioned process resulting in no ATP production and subsequently death.
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This proton gradient is analogous to water stored in an elevated reservoir. The higher the water level in the reservoir, the more potential energy is available to accomplish mechanical work like turning a water wheel to grind grain. In the same way, the greater the difference in proton concentrations across the membrane, the more energy is available for ATP synthase to make ATP. Indeed, the ATP synthase complex even resembles a water wheel, in that the flow of protons down their concentration gradient, through ATP synthase, causes a part of ATP synthase to rotate.
list 5 differences between cellular respiration and photosynthesis
Energy Transformation: Both Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis need to transform energy into different forms in order for their reactions to initially take place and continue onward.