Examines what democracy is; considers competing theories about its causes; explores multiple democratic institutions; discusses several types of democracy; and analyzes various aspects of democratic quality and stability, focusing on Eastern Europe, Latin America, and sub-Saharan Africa.
Although it is also a form of underdetermination, what we described inSection 1 above as contrastive underdetermination raises fundamentallydifferent issues from the holist variety considered in Section 2 (Bonk2008 is a book-length treatment of many of these issues). This isclearly evident in Duhem’s original writings concerningso-called crucial experiments, where he seeks to show that even whenwe explicitly suspend any concerns about holist underdetermination,the contrastive variety remains an obstacle to our discovery of truthin theoretical science:
CAH - Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis | AcronymAttic
Examines immigration politics in Western Europe, analyzing trends and policy from the postwar period through to today. Topics include citizenship, immigrant integration, asylum, the far-right, and a rotating focus on contemporary issues, e.g., terrorism, Islamophobia.
(1966) define the idea of the contrastive analysis (the ..
To understand this process, Allen and her colleagues analyzed the written narratives of 23 young men in which the men described how they learned about menstruation, what they thought of it when they first learned about it, and what they think of it now.
is rooted in the contrastive analysis hypothesis ..
A fairly standard reply to this line of argument is to suggest thatwhat Laudan and Leplin really show is that the notion of empiricalequivalence must be applied to larger collections of beliefs thanthose traditionally identified as scientific theories—at leastlarge enough to encompass the auxiliary assumptions needed to deriveempirical predictions from them. At the extreme, perhaps this meansthat the notion of empirical equivalents (or at least timelessempirical equivalents) cannot be applied to anything less than“systems of the world” (i.e. total Quinean webs ofbelief), but even that is not fatal: what the champion of contrastiveunderdetermination asserts is that there are empirically equivalentsystems of the world that incorporate different theories ofthe nature of light, or spacetime, or whatever. On the other hand, itmight seem that quick examples like van Fraassen’s variants ofNewtonian cosmology do not serve to make this thesis asplausible as the more limited claim of empirical equivalence forindividual theories. It seems equally natural, however, to respond toLaudan and Leplin simply by conceding the variability in empiricalequivalence but insisting that this is not enough to undermine theproblem. Empirical equivalents create a serious obstacle to belief ina theory so long as there is some empirical equivalent tothat theory at any given time, but it need not be the same one at eachtime. On this line of thinking, cases like van Fraassen’sNewtonian example illustrate how easy it is for theories to admit ofempirical equivalents at any given time, and thus constitute a reasonfor thinking that there probably are or will be empirical equivalentsto any given theory at any particular time we consider it, assuringthat whenever the question of belief in a given theory arises, thechallenge posed to it by constrastive underdetermination arises aswell.
along with the contrastive analysis hypothesis that different ..
Emphasis on the notion that language is a remarkable achievement of the human mind. Current insights into the nature of language. Survey of various subfields of linguistics. Introduction to linguistic analysis.