Now, a much more expansive view would hold that every consciousexperience has a distinctive phenomenal character. Thinking that 17 isa prime number, thinking that the red in the sunset is caused by thesun’s light waves being bent by the atmosphere, thinking that Kant wasmore right than Hume about the grounds of knowledge, thinking thateconomic principles are also political—even such highlycognitive activities have a character of what-it-is-like to so think,according to this expansive view.
For Husserl, then, phenomenology integrates a kind of psychologywith a kind of logic. It develops a descriptive or analytic psychologyin that it describes and analyzes types of subjective mental activityor experience, in short, acts of consciousness. Yet it develops a kindof logic—a theory of meaning (today we say logical semantics)—in that it describes and analyzes objective contents ofconsciousness: ideas, concepts, images, propositions, in short, idealmeanings of various types that serve as intentional contents, ornoematic meanings, of various types of experience. These contents areshareable by different acts of consciousness, and in that sense theyare objective, ideal meanings. Following Bolzano (and to some extentthe platonistic logician Hermann Lotze), Husserl opposed any reductionof logic or mathematics or science to mere psychology, to how peoplehappen to think, and in the same spirit he distinguished phenomenologyfrom mere psychology. For Husserl, phenomenology would studyconsciousness without reducing the objective and shareable meaningsthat inhabit experience to merely subjective happenstances. Idealmeaning would be the engine of intentionality in acts ofconsciousness.
The Best Definition of Singularity
In the years since Husserl, Heidegger, et al. wrote,phenomenologists have dug into all these classical issues, includingintentionality, temporal awareness, intersubjectivity, practicalintentionality, and the social and linguistic contexts of humanactivity. Interpretation of historical texts by Husserl et al.has played a prominent role in this work, both because the texts arerich and difficult and because the historical dimension is itself partof the practice of continental European philosophy. Since the 1960s,philosophers trained in the methods of analytic philosophy have alsodug into the foundations of phenomenology, with an eye to20th century work in philosophy of logic, language, andmind.
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Consider epistemology. As we saw, phenomenology helps to define thephenomena on which knowledge claims rest, according to modernepistemology. On the other hand, phenomenology itself claims to achieveknowledge about the nature of consciousness, a distinctive kind offirst-person knowledge, through a form of intuition.
Introduction to the Works of Euclid - Melissa Joan Hart
Philosophers have sometimes argued that one of these fields is“first philosophy”, the most fundamental discipline, on which allphilosophy or all knowledge or wisdom rests. Historically (it may beargued), Socrates and Plato put ethics first, then Aristotle putmetaphysics or ontology first, then Descartes put epistemology first,then Russell put logic first, and then Husserl (in his latertranscendental phase) put phenomenology first.
With an Emphasis on the Elements. By Donald Lancon, Jr. (student).
Traditionally, philosophy includes at least four core fields ordisciplines: ontology, epistemology, ethics, logic. Supposephenomenology joins that list. Consider then these elementarydefinitions of field:
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More recently, analytic philosophers of mind have rediscoveredphenomenological issues of mental representation, intentionality,consciousness, sensory experience, intentional content, andcontext-of-thought. Some of these analytic philosophers of mind harkback to William James and Franz Brentano at the origins of modernpsychology, and some look to empirical research in today’s cognitiveneuroscience. Some researchers have begun to combine phenomenologicalissues with issues of neuroscience and behavioral studies andmathematical modeling. Such studies will extend the methods oftraditional phenomenology as the Zeitgeist moves on. Weaddress philosophy of mind below.